The demand for social indicators has increased exponentially over the past 10 years. Hurricanes Sandy, Ike, and Katrina and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill have shown important gaps in how institutions prepare and respond to extreme events. The
Victoria C. Ramenzoni and David Yoskowitz
The Case of Peshawar, Pakistan
Muhammad Yasir Ali and Ka Lin
://www.adb.org/data/statistics . Berman , Y. , and D. Phillips . 2000 . “ Indicators of Social Quality and Social Exclusion at the National and Community Level .” Social Indicators Research 50 ( 3 ): 329 – 350 . 10.1023/A:1007074127144 Castillejo , C. 2012 . “ Exclusion
This article concerns challenges arising from the development of economic globalization as the so-called “creator of a new world order“ and its tendency to deteriorate the foundation of a global order in terms of social justice, solidarity, and human dignity. As main point of referral functions, the report of the "Commission Stiglitz, Sen and Fitoussi" on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress that refers to the European Commission's strategy of development, acknowledges the need for these values. On behalf of this reflection, this article is based on the recent outcomes of the exploration of these social quality issues in a recent published book by the Foundation on Social Quality. The article argues that indicators are needed in order to understand the effects of societal changes in response to the current economic globalization, which increases inequality and the fragmentation of the labor market.
Reading 'The Social Quality of Europe' is a challenge, partly because several authors' discussions go beyond the well-structured concepts of social policy, social security and the welfare state, and even more because the protagonists of social quality acknowledge that 'if no application is possible... it will only be used in unproblematic situations and function as a tautology.' It 'will remain an abstract and affirmative concept, of little use in theory and research of social problems in the widest sense' (Baars et al., 1997). That is why, in this article, we would like to make a contribution to the conceptual discussion, with particular reference to the issues of eventual empirical research. Due to the complexity of the concept it will not be possible to examine operationalisation in depth.
socioeconomic status. In this, the results discussed here support the arguments of environmental justice—that social inequality in the population results in unequal distribution of environmental hazards, in this case with regard to subjective heat stress. Social
Michael Ebert, Ilona Ostner, Uschi Brand, and Steffen Kühnel
Large-scale initiatives to improve individual life chances and social structures face many problems. They need proper theorising and equally proper operationalisation. This is where the EFSQ project on ‘Social Quality Indicators’ comes into play: its main objective was to develop concepts and instruments for a country- and European-wide assessment of social quality. On the basis of ontological considerations about ‘the social’, the new approach defined a ‘quadrangle’ of four basic conditions which were assumed to determine the development of social quality: ‘socio-economic security’, ‘social inclusion’, ‘social cohesion’ and ‘social empowerment’. Relevant domains and sub-domains for each of the four components were identified and a restricted set of ‘ideal’ – mostly objective – indicators was chosen. The availability of already existing ‘hard’ data did not influence that process. Hence the project has stretched beyond the mere description of social quality in Europe and provided a stimulus to gather new relevant data on ‘forgotten’ aspects of the social quality of life. Social indicator research has a long tradition in Germany which helped us to draw effectively upon the results of regularly conducted surveys. The following report starts by explaining the German context. It then summarises key-findings from existing databases to give meaning to the ninety-five social quality indicators in the four components. Finally, we have included discussion of relevant policy initiatives.
From Evidence to Explanations
After the Second World War, the view that people of every nation would be entitled to experience rising standards of living pervaded all corners of the globe. Convergence was seen as a positive way of achieving a Golden Age and a peaceful and affluent utopia, through modernisation and technical progress. Within this general belief, the development of national social welfare systems in Europe in the postwar period appears to be the outcome of autonomous national processes. The construction of Europe, which imposed common rules in many areas, was nonetheless consistent with the national development of social welfare systems within each national culture. The idea of a common system of social protection has always been linked to European political and economic construction, which was expected to create a more cohesive society. Reference is made constantly to convergence as a catching-up process in the comparative evaluation of national social policies, but the implementation of an ambitious European system of social protection and the creation of harmonised national welfare systems have always proved to be impossible. The paper focuses on two specific topics. Firstly, it examines attempts to quantify convergence among EU and OECD countries at the macro-economic level, using social indicators to assess the convergence or divergence of social expenditure. The evidence of convergence is shown to be ambiguous due to a number of methodological problems. Secondly, two main interpretations of convergence are examined: economic forces and legal frameworks. The paper shows that the analysis of national trajectories of social expenditure and the link with economic development can enrich the analysis of convergence or divergence in social protection. Even if the maturation or reform of national social policies explains the origins of increases in social expenditure, macro-economic pressures, or constraints (globalisation, Single Market), on public expenditure can fuel certain type of convergence. In all the developed countries, social welfare systems are based on national legal frameworks. A goal of social Europe is not only to work towards European solidarity but also to build common social rights throughout Europe. Convergence of national social welfare systems can, therefore, be interpreted as a component in a general process of convergence in law within the developed countries, especially within Europe. However, common explanations of convergence in social welfare systems often neglect elements of divergence. They, therefore, conceal the complexity of the process and very often underestimate the full extent of divergence.
Ferenc Bódi, Jenő Zsolt Farkas, and Péter Róbert
significant role in the appearance of unemployment in the agricultural sector. References Abbott , P. , and C. Wallace . 2014 . “ Rising Economic Prosperity and Social Quality: The Case of New Member States of the European Union .” Social Indicators
Anthropological Perspectives on Wellbeing and Place
Emilia Ferraro and Juan Pablo Sarmiento Barletti
( Social Indicators Research Series 38 ). 10.1007/978-90-481-2352-0 Diener , E. , D. Kahneman and J. Helliwell (eds.) ( 2010 ), International Differences in Well-being ( New York : Oxford University Press ). 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732739
An Analysis of the Evaluation of Different Classes
Cui Yan and Huang Yongliang
. Phillips . 2000 . “ Indicators of Social Quality and Social Exclusion at National and Community Level .” Social Indicators Research 50 ( 3 ): 329 – 350 . 10.1023/A:1007074127144 Berman , Y. , and D. Phillips . 2004 . “ Indicators for Social