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Standardizing responsibility through the stakeholder figure

Norwegian hydropower in Turkey

Ståle Knudsen, Ingrid Birce Müftüoğlu, and Isabelle Hugøy


Through a multi-sited study of the Norwegian state-owned renewable energy corporation Statkraft, this article explores how the increasing embedding of corporate social responsibility in international guidelines impacts the way responsibility is handled when large energy corporations operate overseas. Focusing on one of Statkraft's projects in Turkey, we detail how standards are used to guide both operations in the field and external reporting, in the process distancing the corporation from its Norwegian origin. We argue that the application of standards results in much less standardization than is often assumed. “Stories” become as important for reporting as standards, and the elusive figure of the “stakeholder” plays an important role in holding together the heterogeneous field of corporate responsibility.

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The commons, property, and ownership

Suggestions for further discussion

Katharina Bodirsky


In response to the theme section on commoning in the December 2017 issue of Focaal, this article raises further questions for discussion and proposes an analytics of the commons that grasps it through the lens of property regimes. The key question concerns how we might best envision the relation of the commons/commoning to the state, capitalism, and commonality in a way that does justice to both a broadly Leftist politics of the commons and an analysis of really existing commons that might deviate from this ideal. The conceptual lens of property regimes proposed here focuses empirical attention on relations of production and the organization of membership and ownership in the commons without including a particular politics into the definition as such.

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Book Reviews

Karen M. Sykes and Felix Stein

doubts as to whether the distinction between house economies and markets is as stark and encompassing as Gudeman’s model makes it out to be. Keith Hart, for example, has long argued that inequality is due to the institutions of ‘state capitalism’ rather

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Theorizing Democracy in a Pandemic

Peter Levine

to meeting together and speaking for political or cultural reasons” ( Agamben 2020b ). Both approaches reflect the same methodological error. Whether you want to defend or defeat the nation-state, capitalism, liberalism, or some form of democratic

Open access

A moral turn in finance?

Labeling, purpose, and the morality of markets

Giulia Dal Maso, Aneil Tripathy, and Marc Brightman

in terms of “state capitalism” ( Knudsen et al. 2020 ). Finance has always been used to bring about material effects in the “real” economy ( Park and Greenberg 2017: xv ). Like the economy itself, it has always been “embedded” in social and

Open access

Democracy, Development and Industrial Policy in Nigeria

A Historical Contextualisation

Abel B.S. Gaiya

governance. It has attempted both federalism and unitary systems of government. It has gone through both democratic and military rule, and attempted state capitalism and privatisation, marketisation and liberalisation. Various actors have sought to resolve

Open access

Bringing the state back in

Corporate social responsibility and the paradoxes of Norwegian state capitalism in the international energy sector

Ståle Knudsen, Dinah Rajak, Siri Lange, and Isabelle Hugøy

compared with the other Nordic countries, 4 state capitalism has been particularly important in Norway. The Norwegian state and municipalities have been heavily involved in transport, postal services, energy and telecommunications, and industry, especially

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The Current State of Anomie in Angola

Ruy Llera Blanes

lasted until 2002, as well as the end of the Cold War and subsequent reforms, eventually gave way to a form of authoritarian state capitalism that, despite periods of spectacular economic growth, has produced an Angola marked by a dramatic deficit in the

Open access

A megastructure in Singapore

The “Asian city of tomorrow?”

Xinyu Guan

Huat . 2017 . Liberalism disavowed: Communitarianism and state capitalism in Singapore . Singapore : NUS Press . Daechsel , Markus . 2013 . “ Misplaced Ekistics: Islamabad and the politics of urban development in Pakistan .” South Asian History

Open access

Whose Reality Counts?

Emergent Dalitbahujan Anthropologists

Reddi Sekhara Yalamala

state, capitalism, racism and male dominance are not inevitable; that it would be possible to have a world in which these things would not exist, and that we'd all be better off as a result’ ( Graeber 2004: 10 ; see Yalamala 2011 , 2013 ). This