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Peter Jones, Michael Butler, Taylor Smith, Matthew C. Eshleman and David Detmer

Three articles analyze David Detmer’s first book on Sartre, Freedom as a Value. Peter Jones argues that Sartre uses freedom in only one sense, as freedom to choose, whereas Detmer argues that Sartre distinguishes between freedom of choice (“ontological freedom”) and freedom of obtaining (“practical freedom”). Michael Butler’s paper contends that under a Sartrean framework, any moral judgment we make regarding our own action is never final; the meaning and moral value of our past actions always remains reinterpretable in light of what unfolds in the future. Our interactions with other people reveal that we are responsible for far more than we had initially supposed ourselves to be choosing when we began our project, such that it is in fact impossible to ever finish taking responsibility completely. Taylor Smith and Matthew Eshleman tackle Sartre’s supposed “subjectivism” from the opposite angle. They agree with Detmer that Sartre’s belief that values are mind-dependent does not necessarily entail ethical subjectivism, but argue that even the early Sartre was more fully committed to a cognitivist view of normative justification than Detmer allows. Detmer’s replies to all three essays round out this section and this issue.

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Evidence in Socio-cultural Anthropology

Limits and Options for Epistemological Orientations

Andre Gingrich

This article identifies what Sir Edmund Leach once called 'amongitis' as one of socio-cultural anthropology's major problems that make interdisciplinary dialogues on evidence-based epistemological topics difficult. Topics of wider and larger scale, however, can and should be addressed if anthropology brings out more fully its implicit epistemological strength of a dialogical relationship between objectivism and subjectivism. The current conditions of a globalizing world actually transform this possibility into a necessity. In order to face this need, a new realism is proposed that is capable of dealing with the conditions and challenges of a second modernity. Two ranges of epistemological sources are suggested that may inform such a new realism. One range is based in the traditions of Western philosophy, while the other is rooted outside the secularized or theological legacies of monotheism.

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Concerning Durkheim's 1899 Lecture ‘On Penal Sanctions’

Introduction, Translation Notes, and Comments

Ronjon Paul Datta and François Pizarro Noël

kind of subjectivism requires studying the external and visible characteristics of negative, penal, civil, and positive sanctions. A clear contrast is made between the disorganised, spontaneous, and reflex-like qualities of social sanctions that one

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Iddo Landau

This paper critically examines Sartre's argument for the meaninglessness of life from our foundationless freedom. According to Sartre, our freedom to choose our values is completely undetermined. Hence, we cannot rely on anything when choosing and cannot justify our choices. Thus, our freedom is the foundation of our world without itself having any foundation, and this renders our lives absurd. Sartre's argument presupposes, then, that although we can freely choose all our values we have a meta-value that we cannot choose: that values are acceptable only if they are justified by some independent factor rather than by one's free choice. I argue that we need not accept this presupposition: subjectivists may well choose to be 'proud subjectivists' who are pleased with, rather than ashamed by, their subjectivism. Indeed, many subjectivists, including those considering the meaning of life - for example, Harry Frankfurt and Brooke Alan Trisel - adopt this position.

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Lamazhaa Chimiza

requirements and the encouragement of complete subjectivism; rather, it is a question of putting the person at the center of scientific research, while taking into account the subjective components of both culture and science (Lukov and Lukov 2008: 7 ). Lukov

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Travel, Authority, and Framing the Subject

Elizabeth Justice’s A Voyage to Russia and Amelia

Matthew W. Binney

insist upon their authenticity by underscoring the author-narrator’s temporally distinct, social, and economic circumstances. Subjectivism, Consciousness, and Authenticity Recently Thompson (2011: 78) summarized the development of “subjective

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The Ill-Equipped Modernist

Historicizing Édouard Dujardin’s Les Lauriers Sont Coupés

Kelly J. Maynard

in its own right, analyzing its interiority as an innovative product of overlapping aesthetic milieus symptomatic of the French fin de siècle, including symbolism, Wagnerism, modernism, and subjectivism. 2 In this article, I explore Les Lauriers

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Austrian “Gypsies” in the Italian archives

Historical ethnography on multiple border crossings at the beginning of the twentieth century

Paola Trevisan

in a more complex way bearing in mind what Comaroff and Comaroff write: “Ethnography is a historically situated mode of understanding historically situated contexts, each with its own perhaps radically different kind of subjects and subjectivism

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‘Off Path, Counter Path’

Contemporary Walking Collaborations in Landscape, Art and Poetry

Harriet Tarlo and Judith Tucker

the Lyric ‘I’ was profound. The mid-century poet Charles Olson joins this tradition of the rejection of ‘subjectivism’ in its ‘stance toward reality outside a poem’. 13 He proposes a new ‘objectism’, that is ‘getting rid of the lyrical interference of

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Brendan Rooney, Hanna Kubicka, Carl Plantinga, James Kendrick and Johannes Riis

works because it cancels out, at least partially, the purported weaknesses of phenomenological and cognitive approaches when practiced in isolation. The oft-criticized subjectivism of phenomenology is assisted by empirically grounded cognitive accounts