Roy Rappaport’s attempted semiotic schematization of the logic of ritual, relying on analytical tools from C. S. Peirce’s philosophical semiotics, is examined in terms of both its conceptual coherence and its relation to other schematizations of ritual, especially Michael Polanyi’s thematization of a ‘tacit logic’ of meaning-making. The Peircean foregrounding of sign types (icons, indices, symbols) is compared to Polanyi’s delineation of an irreducible from-to structure of consciousness, rooted in the distinction between focal and subsidiary awareness, and to his further distinction between indication and symbolization as ways of relating to and effecting symbolic complexes, such as rituals. One of the startling upshots of this comparison is that the distinctions between ‘thick ritual’ and ‘thin ritual,’ and between art and ritual, become extremely labile. Examples from Ralph Waldo Emerson, Philip Larkin, and Simone Weil illustrate this last point.
The Tacit Logic of Ritual Embodiments
Rappaport and Polanyi between Thick and Thin
Robert E. Innis
A New Kind of Monster, Cowboy, and Crusader?
Gender Hegemony and Flows of Masculinities in Pixar Animated Films
Elizabeth Al-Jbouri and Shauna Pomerantz
Representations of boys and men in Disney films often escape notice due to presumed gender neutrality. Considering this omission, we explore masculinities in films from Disney's lucrative subsidiary Pixar to determine how masculinities are represented and have and/or have not disrupted dominant gender norms as constructed for young boys’ viewership. Using Raewyn Connell's theory of gender hegemony and related critiques, we suggest that while Pixar films strive to provide their male characters with a feminist spin, they also continue to reify hegemonic masculinities through sharp contrasts to femininities and by privileging heterosexuality. Using a feminist textual analysis that includes the Toy Story franchise, Monsters, Inc., Finding Nemo, The Incredibles, and Coco, we suggest that Pixar films, while offering audiences a “new man,” continue to reinforce hegemonic masculinities in subtle ways that require critical examination to move from presumed gender neutrality to an understanding of continued, though shifting, gender hegemony.
Het Spoorwegmuseum Utrecht, the Netherlands
God created the Earth, but the Dutch created the Netherlands, albeit with only a limited role for the railway. Any railway museum in this country invented by and dependent on hydraulic engineering must creatively solve the problem of portraying a technology of mobility which was not central to the Waterstaat (hydro-engineering) identity and the nation’s sociotechnological construction, but one which initially was secondary and subsidiary and, above all, delayed. On the face of it, the story to be told here appears to be that of how, in a northwestern part of Europe where thorough industrialization was late to come, railway-based mobility established itself against the omnipresence of shipping and evolved from seaport-catering surface logistics into an integral element of everyday transportation in twentieth-century Netherlands. The Utrecht Spoorwegmuseum (railway museum) impressively shows that this is not even half the truth, behind which might be, at best, the grumbling resentment of an 1890 boatman.
Transnational Human Rights Litigation
A Means of Obtaining Effective Remedy Abroad?
activities of their subsidiaries in the Global South. In recent years, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other civil society organizations have reported many such instances of wrongdoing and brought legal actions against parent companies. Leading TNCs
Michael R. M. Ward
Al-Jbouri and Shauna Pomerantz, in our third article, explore masculinities in Disney films, specifically from its lucrative subsidiary Pixar, to determine the kinds of masculinities represented. They show how male characters have and or have not
Penny Welch and Susan Wright
-wing indoctrination’ in universities and offer training to student activists who share their worldview. The authors present a case study of Students For Liberty Brasil, set up in 2012 as a subsidiary of the American organisation Students For Liberty. Students For
“Be Prepared!” (But Not Too Prepared)
Scouting, Soldiering, and Boys’ Roles in World War I
reality of the Mafeking Boy Scouts’ subsidiary role in the Boer War. A similarly misleading juxtaposition occurs later in the handbook in the outline of the Boy Scout’s “DUTIES AS CITIZEN-SOLDIER” (282). Baden-Powell urges boys that, in the likely event
The Responsibility to Prevent Future Harm
Anti-Mining Struggles, the State, and Constitutional Lawsuits in Ecuador
as compensation and remedy for the environmental damage caused by Texaco (and its fourth-tier subsidiary TexPet) to the plaintiffs. However, to this day, the company has still not paid. Instead, in an attempt to ‘prevent the enforcement of the
Proximity, Responsibility and Temporality at Resource Frontiers
Corporate-Community Relations in the Colombian Mining Sector
Colombian coal mining corporation and a subsidiary of the Swiss commodity enterprise Glencore PLC, the future closure of its two coal mines in the North Colombian department El Cesar was omnipresent. 1 The officials of the SR team (SR officials) depicted
Fairy Whisperer's March to the East
Marija Bulatović and Višnja Krstić
March 1927, contains a detailed description of her first visit of a holy temple, as well as discussions about colonialism and current affairs in India. All these intricate descriptions, observations, seemingly subsidiary events and details form “the