The movement of money in Christian pilgrimage is a profound mirror of cultural classifications. By examining tips, commissions, and souvenir purchases in Holy Land pilgrimages, I show how the transfer of monies activates a series of multiple, complex relationships between Jewish guides, Palestinian drivers, and Christian pilgrims. I identify the 'colors'—or moral values—of salaries, tips, and commissions that change hands as 'white', 'black', or 'gray' monies and correlate these colors with particular discourses and degrees of transparency. I then illustrate how prayer, rituals, and the citation of scripture may 'bleach' these monies, transforming tips into 'love offerings' and souvenir purchases into aids to spiritual development or charity to local communities, while fostering relationships and conveying messages across religious and cultural lines. Far from being a universal 'acid' that taints human relationships, pilgrimage monies demonstrate how, through the exchange of goods, people are able to create and maintain spiritual values.
Tips, Commissions, and Ritual in Christian Pilgrimage to the Holy Land
David P. Conradt
This article develops the thesis that the past quarter-century of electoral volatility in Germany reached a critical tipping point at the 2005 election. The two major parties of the Bonn Republic are now at their lowest combined share of the popular vote since the Federal Republic's founding in 1949. Electoral necessity and not, as in 1966, elite choice forced them into a grand coalition with little programmatic consensus. Their respective demographic cores-church-going Catholics for the CDU and unionized industrial workers for the SPD-have eroded as has the proportion of the electorate identifying with them. Institutional factors such as the electoral system have neither helped nor hindered these changes. The current grand coalition also faces a larger and more focused opposition than in 1966. The article concludes with some comparisons between the current German party system and its Italian counterpart of the late 1980s.
Challenges and Concrete, Plain Language Strategies for Community Engagement in Research
Janet Page-Reeves and Lidia Regino
researchers, including anthropologists, to develop knowledge, skills and strategies for navigating complex social and cultural dimensions of conducting research both in and with communities has now become imperative. Tips for Community-Engaged Health Research
taught Thais informally on the beaches in the 1990s and 2000s. Over the past 15 years, fire dancing has become a popular “Thai” performance that is integrated into the tourist economy, operating through stipends from bars and tips from tourists. Fire
Reflections on an Overburdened Word
occupying the socially strategic position of having both the first and the last word in arranging human affairs. Crisis is here located at the tipping point of success or failure, echoing the search for an outcome in the older sense of the word “success
Belowground Agency in the Making of Future Climates
Céline Granjou and Juan Francisco Salazar
Despite soil’s vital ecological importance, its significance as a belowground tridimensional living world remains under-theorized in social and cultural research. Drawing on the reading of scientific literature and a series of interviews with scientists working at the juncture of soil and climate research, this article pursues a picture that highlights soil’s capacities to shape future climates, including by fostering major planetary tipping points; we elaborate on the cultural and ethical significance of that picture for opening up alternative stories in which agency and change are not human-only prerogatives. We develop a critical stance on the growing expectations of storing more carbon into soils and argue for a better consideration of the situated, heterogeneous, and volatile dynamics of carbon within soils. We eventually call for more responsible ways of thinking about, and caring for, the myriad conglomerates of living, decaying, and dead matter that basically make up the stuff of soil.
Henri Lefebvre rarely looms large in discussions of Sartre, and vice versa. With the notable exception of Mark Poster, critics have generally ignored the role of France’s leading Marxist philosopher in mediating Sartre’s encounter with Marxism. As a result, Sartre’s well-known footnote in the Critique de la raison dialectique, quoted above, may appear as a characteristically quixotic gesture on his part. The purpose of this article is to argue that this relatively isolated acknowledgement is the tip of an iceberg, beneath which there lies a deep and complex philosophical and political relationship. The text was published in 1957 at a moment when Sartre and Lefebvre came to share an unusual degree of common ground. This itself requires detailed examination, but it first needs to be situated in a wider context embracing most of the lifetime of the two thinkers up until that point.
Normativity in the Postdigital Museum
This article is an attempt to frame a way of seeing museums after the digital revolution. By introducing the concept of the ‘postdigital’, its aim is to evidence a tipping point in the adoption of new media in the museum—a moment where technology has become normative. The intention is not to suggest that digital media today is (or, indeed, should be) universally and equally adopted and assimilated by all museums, but rather to use the experience of several (national) museums to illustrate the normative presence digital media is having within some organizational strategies and structures. Having traced this perceived normativity of technology in these localized institutional settings, the article then attempts to reflect upon the consequences that the postdigital and the normative management of new media have for our approach to museological research.
Pinterest Cyber Collections Archive Available Female Identities
Collection is an important activity and marker of childhood. In this article I will discuss Pinterest as an online iteration of the collection process. Through Pinterest, users amass bits of information online, known as pins, to display on virtual bulletin boards. My project positions Pinterest as an influential text and literacy practice related to identity production with particular impact on girls. With obvious parallels to the keeping of commonplace books, Pinterest is an act of virtual curation that shapes a pinner's present and future identities. In the Pinterest space, girls see and collect ideals of femininity (displayed in recipes, fantasy weddings, and parenting tips) and in so doing create their own online avatars. This practice requires a critical awareness as users reinscribe, resist, or reinforce cultural norms of femininity. This article offers a conceptual base for future systematic study of Pinterest as a text and practice of girlhood.
Margery Allingham's Gender Agenda
Mr Campion’s somewhat intemperate outburst erupts into the midst of Margery Allingham’s 1938 novel, The Fashion in Shrouds, causing serious damage to the detective’s veneer of gentility. Yet these words, disturbing as they are, are merely the tip of a complex gender iceberg – a paradoxical mass of attitudes and opinions that are all the more difficult to read for their being seven-eighths submerged beneath the familiar surface text of classical crime fiction. The underlying misogyny of the detective, Albert Campion, inevitably raises questions about his creator. What were Allingham’s opinions regarding the role of women in inter-war society? What was her ‘gender agenda’? As the above quotation suggests, the answers are far from clear. Is the reader expected to sympathise with Campion’s bizarre collection of gender assumptions – or is Allingham, to borrow a phrase from Alison Light, ‘making fun of heroes’? Allingham’s output during the 1930s varied enormously in tone and style, making it difficult to place both writer and detective within the parameters of gender and genre, but some insight into these evasive fictions can be gained through a comparison with her later work – specifically the wartime novel, Traitor’s Purse (1941). The outbreak of war in 1939 effects a change on both Allingham’s narrative and her gender agenda, manifested as a shift in perspective from the ‘problem’ of femininity to a crisis of masculinity, and this transition suggests that the disruption of war facilitated the articulation of a range of doubts and uncertainties that could not find expression in her fiction of the 1930s.