repository when the originator dies or is no longer able to enjoy its existence. Documentation of leisure travelers is only one form of travel archives; they may also be the notes and journals of travel writers, explorers of literally new territories
A Study of Travel Archives
Lee Arnold and Thomas van der Walt
Back to the Eighteenth Century
Giuli Liebman Parrinello
Although a great deal has been written about the constantly debated relationship between tourist and traveler (tourism and travel) with often quite different ideological approaches being adopted, nevertheless consensus still seems to be a distant reality. In this article, the reasons for this apparent theoretical impasse are explored by tracing its historical origins. Most scholars agree that tourism as a modern phenomenon appeared on the horizon of Western European society in the second half of the eighteenth century, thereby allowing a broad historical and dualistic conceptualization of tourism, which added to its dynamic characteristic (travel) a notion of temporary sojourn including leisure (villeggiatura, spas, etc.). The background of an articulated Enlightenment revealed not only a new anthropological curiosity about the Other, but also features like conspicuous consumption and eudaemonism, which played and continue to exert a fundamental role in the tourism of yesterday and today. Furthermore, the emerging dialectic between the new social actor (the tourist) and the movement (tourism) can currently be read as a substantial and dramatic “figuration“ (Elias 1978a), encompassing unforeseen consequences within the framework of communication.
Early Seventeenth-Century Travelers to the Ruins of Troy
The article focuses on three early-seventeenth-century (English and Scottish) leisure travelers’ accounts of the (alleged) ruins of Homeric Troy, namely those penned by Thomas Coryat, William Lithgow, and George Sandys. It argues that their rumination on the specific remains both shaped and reflected their manifold, fractured, and precarious identities while it also highlighted the complex dialogue taking place in these texts between a ruinous past and a fragmented and malleable present. The essay also examines the three travelers’ broken poetics, interspersed in the aforementioned accounts, and shows that they constitute highly self-aggrandizing narratives through which their authors perform their fragile identities.
Mediterranean Travel, Plague, and Quarantine in the Late Eighteenth Century
Our recent experiences of quarantine during the COVID-19 outbreak have exposed the vulnerability of poorer members of society and has highlighted their increased suffering during the period of restricted mobility. This article considers the way in which quarantine exacerbates inequalities from a historical perspective, looking at enforced periods of restricted travel and its impact on servants and lower-class British travelers of the eighteenth century in Europe. It examines both the history of representations of plague and contagion, and some of the human reactions to fears of disease, one of which was the imposition of quarantine measures. Three main sources are referred to: Patrick Brydone’s A Tour through Sicily and Malta in a Series of Letters to William Beckford, published in 1790; Elizabeth, Lady Craven’s “A Journey through the Crimea to Constantinople in a series of Letters,” published in 1789; and the unpublished letters of William Fletcher, manservant to Lord Byron, from his journeys in 1811. The texts produced by these travelers from the eighteenth century offer rich material for the consideration of the impact of mobility and immobility both of and on the body and how these experiences were strikingly different depending on the social class of the traveler.
and female travelers in the way they relate to the society they travel in and the way travel writing tends to create difference between the traveler and what Pratt (1992) calls the “travelee”: The production of difference is somewhat arrested by
Miriam L. Wallace
Best known as political radicals and novelists, Mary Wollstonecraft and Thomas Holcroft each wrote a travel narrative: Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark ( 1987) and Travels from Hamburg through Westphalia, Holland and the Netherlands to Paris (1804), respectively. Despite their specific differences, both Wollstonecraft and Holcroft reconfigure travel as a politically inflected act of cultural encounter, resisting both the Grand Tour tradition of elite education and Romantic travel as an asocial and personal experience of the sublime. Although Wollstonecraft's account has been examined as a kind of feminine sublime or roman à clef, her political project has frequently been elided, seen as separate from the personal affect of her account. Holcroft's narrative is simply neglected. Reading these two travel accounts as products of late eighteenth-century British radical reform and developing Romantic sensibility enhances our understanding of eighteenth-century travel narrative and British Romanticism itself.
Late-Eighteenth-Century British Travel Writing
Anna P.H. Geurts
articles have appeared on the gendered aspects of eighteenth-century travel writing, as well as several studies that put female travelers at the center of their discussion. Many of these focus on British women traveling to the European continent. This
identity by the traveler/writer, wherein apart from the physical journey of the author the emphasis is laid on the emotional and psychological journey within the author. What is identity? Does the quest for identity play an important part in travel
European Travel Writers and the Making of a Genre—Comment
Steven D. Spalding
tip from Herder—the subject of one of the contributions—they suggest that a kind of mobility knowledge is produced as well, apart from objects and objectivity, a subjective shaping of perspective and perceptivity that endows the traveler with a
Aleppo, an Enlightenment City
East that extend beyond the narrow fear of Islam and Muslims ( Laidlaw 2010 ; Mather 2011 ). This article thus aims to rethink this historical amnesia by focusing on the accounts of a few British travelers who visited and lived in Aleppo throughout the