sociology: the treadmill of production, risk society, and ecological modernization. We conclude that these theories are not clear about either what expertise is or how to balance scientism and powerism. Therefore, we turn to science and technology studies
Environmental Sociology Meets Science and Technology Studies
Rolf Lidskog and Göran Sundqvist
capitalism, is foundational to our environmental crisis, like Schnaiberg’s (1980; Gould et al. 2008 ) “treadmill of production” thesis (discussed below), why is it “easier to imagine the end of the world than to imagine the end of capitalism” ( Jameson 2003
A Cross-National Panel Analysis of Unionization and Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Camila Huerta Alvarez, Julius Alexander McGee, and Richard York
In this article, we assess whether unionization of national workforces influences growth in national carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita. Political-economic theories in environmental sociology propose that labor unions have the potential to affect environmental conditions. Yet, few studies have quantitatively assessed the influence of unionization on environmental outcomes using cross-national data. We estimate multilevel regression models using data on OECD member nations from 1970 to 2014. Results from our analysis indicate that unionization, measured as the percentage of workers who are union members, is negatively associated with CO2 emissions per capita, even when controlling for labor conditions. This finding suggests that unionization may promote environmental protection at the national level.
Andrew K. Jorgenson, Brett Clark, and Jennifer E. Givens
Drawing from emergent areas of sociological research and theorization, the authors consider the environmental impacts of militaries from a comparative-international perspective. The article begins with an overview of treadmill of production and treadmill of destruction theories, the latter of which highlights the expansionary tendencies and concomitant environmental consequences of militarization. This theoretical overview is followed by a narrative assessment of military growth and energy consumption, with a particular focus on the US military over the past century. Next, the authors detail the various environmental impacts associated with the growth and structure of national militaries, briefly discuss potential future research directions, and conclude by calling for scholars in future studies on society/nature relationships to seriously consider the environmental and ecological impacts of the world's militaries.
Implications for Addressing Global Climate Change
Diana Stuart, Ryan Gunderson, and Brian Petersen
treadmill of production increasing in scale and speed ( Schnaiberg 1980 ). Their unknowing work to keep the treadmill going depends on a lack of consciousness about their role. But how is it that individuals do not recognize how they are being used for this