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Michael Hughes

books about Russia. Some four hundred books were published in English during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II (1894–1917) describing travels by foreigners through Russia. 11 Countless works of fiction and drama were penned by writers ranging from Oscar

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Of Traiteurs and Tsars

Potel et Chabot and the Franco-Russian Alliance

Willa Z. Silverman

Between 1893 and 1901, the Parisian traiteur Potel et Chabot catered a series of gala meals celebrating the recent Franco-Russian alliance, which was heralded in France as ending its diplomatic isolation following the Franco-Prussian War. The firm was well adapted to the particularities of the unlikely alliance between Tsarist Russia and republican France. On the one hand, it represented a tradition of French luxury production, including haute cuisine, that the Third Republic was eager to promote. On the other, echoing the Republic’s championing of scientific and technological progress, it relied on innovative transportation and food conservation technologies, which it deployed spectacularly during a 1900 banquet for over twenty-two thousand French mayors, a modern “mega-event.” Culinary discourse therefore signaled, and palliated concerns about, the improbable nature of the alliance at the same time as it revealed important changes taking place in the catering profession.

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Boris Belge, Anna Bara, Tricia Starks, and Christopher J. Ward

Smoking under the Tsars: A History of Tobacco in Imperial Russia. Tricia Starks. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2018), xiii + 320 pp. ISBN 978-1-5017-2205-9.

White Fox and Icy Seas in the Western Arctic: The Fur Trade, Transportation and Change in the Early Twentieth Century. John R. Bockstoce. (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2018), 327 pp., index, illustrations, maps, $40.00 (hardback). ISBN 978-0-300-22179-4.

Delo—Tabak: Polveka fabriki “Iava” glazami ee rukovoditelia. Leonid Sinel’nikov. (Moscow: Delo, 2017), 511 pp., ISBN: 978-5-7749-1260-5.

Life Histories of Etnos Theory in Russia and Beyond. David G. Anderson, Dmitry V. Arzyutov and Sergei S. Alymov, eds. (Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2019), 425 pp., https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0150, ISBN 9781783745449.

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Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild

Two of the earliest women's suffrage victories were achieved in the Russian Empire, in Finland and Russia, as a result of wars and revolutions. Their significance has been largely ignored, yet study of these achievements challenges the standard paradigms about the conditions (struggle within a democracy, geographic location on the 'periphery'), which favoured early suffrage breakthroughs. This article analyses the particular circumstances in Finland and Russia, which, in a relatively short amount of time, broke down resistance to giving women the vote. An examination of the events surrounding the February 1917 Russian Revolution, which toppled the Tsar, demonstrates the significant role of women in initiating and furthering the revolutionary momentum as well as fighting for their own rights. Both the Finns and the Russians pioneered in extending the legacies of the French and American Revolutions to include women.

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Religious Belief and Practice in Itelmen History

The Historical Efficacy of Ideological Frameworks

David Koester, Viktoria Petrasheva, and Tatiana Degai

Itelmen people of the Kamchatka Peninsula have felt and experienced the influence of the Russian Orthodox Church for over 300 years. Explorers' reports tell us that at the same time that Itelmens rebelled violently against the tsar's representatives, they accepted and appropriated the power of the church. This article examines religiosity in Itelmen history as it is revealed through a critical approach to sources, especially by focusing on Itelmen actions. Missionaries and ethnographers' preconceptions gave shape to their depictions of Itelmen religious beliefs and practices as (1) Christian beliefs, (2) anathema to Christian beliefs, or (3) mere superstitions. In order to speak about Itelmen perceptions, the article focuses primarily on actions taken during this early period of recorded Itelmen history and on the writers who showed an interest in describing how Itelmens thought about religious questions. The article also recounts the little known story of the 1848 Kutkh rebellion.

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“The Highest Limit of Statesmanship”

Ritterian Geography and Russian Exploration of the Amur River Basin, 1849–1853

Sharyl Corrado

The lower Amur River basin was annexed by Russia in the mid-nineteenth century following several years of unauthorized exploration by naval officer Gennadii Nevel'skoi. Scholars recognize multiple factors—geopolitical, economic, and nationalist—that prompted Russia's interest in the region. This article adds to this list the budding science of geography, and in particular, the influence of German geographer Karl Ritter. To Ritter, a nation's true borders were set by nature, not by man. His ideas are reflected in both the words and actions of Nevel'skoi regarding the lower Amur basin. The explorer described the territory not as foreign or other, but as naturally, historically, and rightfully Russian land. The river, to him, was a highway, facilitating transport through Siberia. In time, even the tsar was convinced. Ritter's ideas extended far beyond intellectual circles in Russia, serving to at once guide and justify Russia's eastward expansion.

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The Complexity of History

Russia and Steven Pinker’s Thesis

Nancy Shields Kollmann

behavior and to inculcate civic values in its citizens, and a growing public acceptance of humanitarian ideals. 5 Violence was not the only issue I was concerned with; I also analyzed the degree to which the tsar’s criminal courts ruled in accordance with

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“Comrades in Battle”

Women Workers and the 1906 Finnish Suffrage Victory

Eric Blanc

subordinate, suddenly get the idea that they really are equal with the other sex." 39 Faced with the imminent overthrow of the regime by a paralyzing labor strike, peasant rebellions, and army mutinies, the tsar was forced on 30 October to promise civil

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Csaba Mészáros

) sell hayfields to each other “unlawfully,” because these hayfields all belong to the tsar. Not only the three-volume collection of seventeenth-century (Red. koll. 1970 Materialy po istorii Jakutii XVII veka: dokumenty jasachnogo sbora: v 3-h ch

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Refugee or Alien?

The Long-Term Influence of Eastern European Jewish Immigrants on the Reception of German Jews into Great Britain in the 1930s

Diana Packer

Great Britain and by 1905 the Jewish population had increased by 41.9 per cent. 2 The Jews were fleeing from religious persecution, exacerbated by the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881. The new tsar pursued a policy of Russification and