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Egalitarian Liberalism, Distributive Justice and the New Constitutionalism

David Bilchitz

These modern constitutions that have been adopted largely in the Global South enshrine a set of divergent values and rights that embrace both political philosophical concerns relating to liberty as well as distributive equality. This article seeks to grapple with the approach to distributive justice that can best give expression to the multiple normative commitments of these constitutions as well as key institutional features thereof. I argue for these societies to adopt what I term a two-tier theory of distributive justice: these theories require a set pattern or threshold to be achieved in a certain domain but also allow for a tolerable variation in resource distribution in another domain. I seek to show how two of the foremost egalitarian liberal theories of distributive justice – that of Ronald Dworkin and John Rawls – exemplify this structure as well as the resources they have to address the problems thereof. I then argue that a two-tier structure of a theory of distributive justice can help explain and reconcile key features of these modern constitutions. In particular, I shall seek to show the manner in which such theories conform to understandings of the role of a constitution, and the importance of preserving space for democratic decision-making. At the same time, two-tier theories assist in delineating the appropriate role constitutional courts should play in addressing the distribution of economic resources in society. These theories also have important implications for the role of the state and markets. Such a structure, I shall conclude, gives effect to a particular conception of equality as well as liberty and so manages to reconcile these two normative values.

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European Anthropology as a Fortuitous Accident?

Reflections on the Sustainability of the Field

Čarna Brković

Neoliberal Academia? The Two-Tier System of Anthropological Knowledge Communities in Europe Europe-wide networks and projects in socio-cultural anthropology started to become common more or less alongside the neoliberalisation of universities. I refer here

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Less talk, more action

(Re)Organising universities in Aotearoa New Zealand

Aimee B. Simpson, Leon A. Salter, Rituparna Roy, Luke D. Oldfield, and Apriel D. Jolliffe Simpson

tension between audit culture's focus on the social good of production and the legislated requirement for universities to ‘accept a role as critic and conscience of society’ (Education and Training Act 2020: 268). This tension, we argue, ingrains a two-tiered

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‘Refugees Are Welcome Here!’

How Public Opinion Got Ahead of Government in Summer 2015 and Stayed There

Maurice Wren

spontaneously. Indeed, we have clear evidence in a speech given by the then Home Secretary (and now Prime Minister) in October 2015 that the government is already pushing back, with talk of a two-tier system of refugee protection using the old trope of setting

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Style and Storytelling in the Hollywood Aesthetic

Patrick Keating

, “Ideology, Emotion, and Aesthetic Pleasure.” In brief, the former argues that we enjoy narrative films because they are cognitively interesting, and the latter argues that we enjoy narrative films because they are emotionally intense. Both theories have two

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Introduction to the Special Issue

Alternative forms of organising academic work in universities

Mette Lund Kristensen, Ingo Winkler, Elke Weik, Richard Mee, and Simon Jebsen

research, which they propose as a viable, strategic way to (re)organise academic work structurally and politically. The authors specifically address the challenges experienced by the academic precariat in a two-tier system where the academic precariat

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Introduction

Overcoming the Quantity-Quality Divide in Economic Anthropology

Sandy Ross, Mario Schmidt, and Ville Koskinen

Holbraad’s article about the two-tiered money economy in Cuba, which influences experiences of need and states of poverty, contributors to this issue are thinking ethnographically about how money’s quantities are entangled with its qualities and physical

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The Politics of Ritual Form(ation) in Contemporary Mongolia

Elizabeth Turk

’ characteristics of nomadism. The influential Mongolist Banzarov, and later Heissig and Bawden, employ Hume's two-tier model of religion, separating out philosophical readings of religion for the elite from the ‘superstitious’ practices of the masses. Buddhist

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Becoming Other, Becoming More

Ontological Continuity in Fictional Feminist Transsexual Autobiography

Jasper Lauderdale

surgically constructed being, a deity incarnate: “she has quite transformed her flesh, she has undergone a painful metamorphosis of the entire body.…She had been human, once; and now she had made herself into this…she possessed two tiers of nipples, the

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Catalysts for Change

Small Parties in the 2021 Bundestag Election

David F. Patton

Internet access at home; ending a two-tier health care system; open admissions at universities; national rent control; and a sweeping economic transformation that would make Germany carbon-neutral by 2035. In regard to foreign policy, Die Linke called for