Public discussions of recent demands by the Gujjars of Rajasthan, India, for inclusion on the list of the state's affirmative action beneficiaries have often veered away from the legitimacy of their claims and toward whether elite Gujjar leaders can speak for less educated and less affluent community members. This article examines how this latter set of questions-often described as the “creamy layer“ problem in reference to a group's elite who have “risen to the top“ and need to be “skimmed off“-can obscure the real workings of affirmative action on the ground and the limitations encountered by groups seeking upward mobility. Ethnographic research with the Dhanka tribe reveals deep concerns that upwardly mobile groups are in danger of downward mobility without the protection of affirmative action-based hiring practices, and that middle class elites within the tribe can be important political advocates for others within the community.
Notes on the "creamy layer" problem
How Mothers Influence Working-Class Girls’ Aspirations
This article examines how working-class mothers influence their daughters' aspirations. Data was gathered from focus groups and interviews with twenty-one white and African American working-class girls and fifteen of their mothers from Southwestern Pennsylvania, United States. Research revealed that the mothers' advice is gendered, class-based, and racialized, and that it emphasizes the importance of caregiving, living near family, and financial independence and security. Qualitatively examining the messages related to work and family that working-class mothers relay to their daughters and how daughters take in these messages shows the contradictions that emerge when working-class mothers support aspiration formation.
Italy as a stepping stone in migrants’ imaginaries
opportunities that Italy offers migrants for upward mobility ( Fullin and Reyneri 2011 ; Reyneri 2004 ; Reyneri and Fullin 2011 ). In large part these limitations stem from the racialized discrimination that migrants experience on a daily basis and a deep
'Urf, Shar'ia and State Law
Gideon M. Kressel and Khalil Abu-Rabi'a
The practice of men swapping daughters for wives or nieces as daughters-in-law is evident among the Bedouin. Although this pattern has its roots in ancient Arab culture and is a unique exception to theories of exchange marriage (EM), there is little reference to the circumstances of its occurrence in the anthropological literature. This article reviews the background of and suggests explanations for this practice. EM is shown to be a strategy that largely serves the desire for upward mobility of small and hence lowly graded groups of agnates. The article demonstrates how EM operates in an olden 'urfi setting, dominated by patrilineages, while shar'i courts tend to oppose it. We argue that, although it entails structural implications, this behavioural pattern does not have a structural end.
Comment on Newberry and Rosen
themselves likely prompted by considerations of mutuality: as a householder whose family was experiencing a relatively rapid upward mobility, he was obliged to send money to poorer rural kin in his home village. In this case, a householding focus shows that
character that shows that upward mobility is possible. He is the handsome head of the Armstrong-Parker house, dating the daughter of the white university president, leveraging his power under the guidance of his father, the dean of students. Their
Australian Interwar Magazines and Middlebrow Orientalism in the Pacific
Victoria Kuttainen and Sarah Galletly
tensions between education and leisure, realism and fantasy, sophistication and relaxation, art and entertainment, documentary and romance, upward mobility and renunciation of class strictures and aspirations. These binaries, we suggest, structured modern
Adivasi and Dalit political pathways in India
Nicolas Jaoul and Alpa Shah
threaten to undermine and limit its scope. Certain Dalit castes like Chamars and Mahars with higher emphasis on education and upward mobility have developed traditional affiliations with the Ambedkarite movement, while other Dalit castes became marginalized
Who Were These Men and Why Did They Not Crush Mass Protest in 1989?
Uwe Krähnke, Anja Zschirpe, Philipp Reimann, and Scott Stock Gissendanner
rapid upward mobility in this generation is linked to the increasing demand for state security personnel in the 1950s and 1960s. The functioning generation, which followed, faced significantly attenuated chances of upward mobility: more than half of
Staying and leaving as tactics of life in Latvia
-hours contract with an agency to a fixed contract in a factory. The availability of work and the prospect for upward mobility, however small, was what many Latvian migrants aspired to. Guided by memories of employment and futures inherent in it, instead of