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‘Which is the merchant here, and which the Jew?’

Alterity, Sameness and Irony in Venice

Anna Carleton Forrester

-state. Nearly all who took up the practice were Jews – perhaps because few careers were permitted to them – thereby tying the association of usury to Jewishness. Until the sixteenth century, harsh taxes, legislations and possibilities of revoked charters

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‘Love Merchandized’

Money in Shakespeare’s Sonnets

Manfred Pfister

place where commercial language appears extensively in Shakespeare is in the sonnets: fully a third of the sonnets refer to payments, credit, usury, or even mortgages’. 7 Shakespeare almost completely discards the traditional cognitive ‘metaphors we live

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Pity Silenced

Economies of Mercy in The Merchant of Venice

Alessandra Marzola

manna Portia dispenses here issues from her shrewd and double-edged lobbying in the interest of Christian merchants, in self-interest, and against Jewish usury. A compound of tangible money and intangible credit, the manna asset is in fact mainly

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David Hawkes

Pound. Pound knew that Eliot was engaged in usury, which he regarded as an immoral form of representation, since it projected an illusory efficacy onto an arbitrary system of signs. Usury, according to Pound, works by ‘destroying the symbols’. That is to

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Deproblematizing The Merchant of Venice

Text, and Pretexts for Changing Subtext

Roger Wooster

and Christian stood for Catholic. Asquith maintains that Shakespeare’s audience would have recognized in Antonio the hypocritical ‘Christian Jews’ of the day who indulged in usury while preaching against it, while in the Old Testament language of

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Shylock in the Cinema

Michael Radford’s The Merchant of Venice

Maria-Clara Versiani Galery

Europe. By law Jews were forced to live in the old walled foundry or ‘Geto’ [sic] area of the city. After sundown any man leaving the ghetto had to wear a red hat to mark him as a Jew. The Jews were forbidden to own property. So they practiced usury, the

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The Limits to Cheating History

Changing the Reference for Accounting

Peter Herrmann

least unproblematic as long as the reference is a setting within which the relations between the actors are structurally imbalanced. If we look at the economic development, we can actually see this when looking at the discussions around usury, which can

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Temperature and Capital

Measuring the Future with Quantified Heat

Scott W. Schwartz

very short answer: usury. That is, usury (interest) became increasingly normalized in Europe, and futurity became a primary source of wealth. “Futurity” is used here to denote not actual events that unfold subsequent to the present but rather the

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The Image of Jews as Constructed by Lexical Items

Translations of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice as a Case in Point

Xiu Gao

Bassanio to express his appreciation for Shylock regarding his agreement to lend the money without any interest, before proposing the flesh bond. This choice of lexical item indicates that if it were not for his usury and vicious bond, Shylock would have

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Thomas Luk

brunt of his sarcasm. When they attack Shylock’s usury, they incur Antonio’s counter-attack on Shylock’s behalf, which reads like an anti-defamation speech. Furthermore, Wesker gives the famous Shylock speech in Merchant to Lorenzo, and saves the