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Günther Jarfe

This article tries to elucidate Gabriel’s story ‘Steps’ to some extent. Here, as elsewhere, the narrator’s deliberate failure to clearly separate actual from imaginary facts and incidents causes problems of understanding. Initially, we are told that the protagonist has long been living in Paris. A little later, however, we hear that he has moved to Wales with his second wife. So where does the man live? While other stories remain ambiguous throughout, ‘Steps’ seems less impenetrable. The protagonist, we learn, often indulged fantasies when he went for his strolls in Paris and is quoted as saying ‘Going up and down steps lets the mind float free’. When at the end of the story the narrative suddenly shifts to the present tense – ‘…he climbs the steps of the rue St. Julien’ – this seems to suggest that most of the story represents aspects of the protagonist’s ‘alternative lives’, as envisaged during his walks.

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Konstantin B. Klokov

In the 1990s, dramatic socio-economic changes caused by the collapse of the Soviet Union greatly impacted reindeer husbandry across Russia. The overall decline of reindeer population at the federal level can be directly linked to economic reforms, which affected all branches of the economy. However, different local herding communities adopted different strategies, which resulted in various and even contradictory trends of reindeer numbers at the regional level. This article analyzes this diversity using statistics from the federal, regional, and local levels, and interviews with herders in different northern regions.

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Andrew Inkpin

), but also – a label Sartre refers to – that of ‘eidetic reduction’. 11 The third feature, usually referred to as ‘free variation’, exploits the fact secured by the epoché that for the purposes of phenomenological description experience of imagined

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Rethinking Adaptation

Emotions, Evolution, and Climate Change

Debra J. Davidson

lens. The crucial links, discussed in closing, that deserve far more research attention, are the means by which emotions filter our knowledge gathering processes. The variation, selection and retention processes defining the adaptation of humans and our

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Yoram Ida, Amir Hefetz, Assaf Meydani, Gila Menahem, and Elad Cohen

institutions of local governance in delivering public services on behalf of the center (ibid.: 369). Thus, the new localism can be viewed as the sum of local variations in the process of implementing nationally prescribed outcomes ( Gal-Arieli et al. 2017

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Mise en abyme

Laurence Grove, Anne Magnussen, and Ann Miller

This edition of European Comic Art was not planned as a themed issue, but during the editing process, we noted that all four articles may be regarded as offering variations on mise en abyme , the use of an image within an image or text within a

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Wrestling with Shylock

Contemporary British Jewish Theatre and Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice

Jeanette R. Malkin and Eckart Voigts

had expected. The three texts we discuss – Arnold Wesker’s 1976 The Merchant (retitled Shylock in 1990), Charles Marowitz’s 1977 Variations on the Merchant of Venice , and Julia Pascal’s 2008 The Shylock Play – engage in what we could call (in

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Invoking a World of Ideas

Theory and Interpretation in the Justification of Colonialism

David Boucher

Rubios and Vitoria, despite variations of emphasis in their arguments, all invoked the same ‘world of ideas’ and ultimately conceded ample grounds for colonisation in acknowledging that certain violations of the natural law constituted just cause for war

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Evert Van de Vliert

caused by the interactive impact of climatic demands and wealth resources on variations in cultural characteristics. For these reasons, the following study estimates the relative importance of the mediating and moderating functions of wealth resources in

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For an Anthropology of Cognitive Disability

Patrick McKearney and Tyler Zoanni

cognitive difference together under the single, broad heading of ‘cognitive disability’ (see Kittay and Carlson 2010 ). We do so not to naturalize any particular way of classifying mental variation, or to ratify the disabling consequences that may result