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Waiting for the disappeared

Waiting as a form of resilience and the limits of legal space in Turkey

Özgür Sevgi Göral

This article situates the case of in a broader context of sovereignty, law and waiting in Turkey. To do so, I put the production of a category for the relatives of the disappeared through a peculiar temporal lens, scrutinising different waiting types that create intertwined notions of hope, loyalty, anxiety and ambiguity. Different forms of waiting mean different temporalities, along with other demands. I thus scrutinise the performances, acts and demands of these temporalities. I then analyse the trajectory for , revealing insights into the limits of legal space and the notion of justice, since this trajectory interrupted the typical waiting patterns for the relatives of the disappeared, transforming their temporal subjectivity. Although it ended without any form of recognition, the case itself was followed by the relatives of the disappeared, who participated attentively. This participation, I believe, reveals crucial information about temporality, subjectivity, violence and legal space in Turkish Kurdistan.

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Waiting

Anticipation and Episodic Time

Cheryl Mattingly

only part of the study for about a year. Waiting is one obvious form of anticipation. Theoretically, I bring a phenomenological framework to bear in analysing Drea's experience of waiting. I ask two primary kinds of questions. First, what is she

Open access

Waiting for justice amidst the remnants

Urban development, displacement and resistance in Diyarbakir

Sardar Saadi

This paper looks into the lives of displaced people and their material bonds with the past while waiting for justice during exceptional times in Diyarbakir, Turkey’s Kurdistan. Diyarbakir is known for its central location in the Kurdish conflict in Turkey for many decades. In August 2015, the old city of Diyarbakir called Sur joined other resisting cities and districts in the Kurdish region of Turkey, where Kurdish militants built barricades all around their controlled neighbourhoods against the state’s violent attacks and declared autonomy. Months after the beginning of the resistance, the Turkish state managed to take back control of Sur after heavy clashes between Turkish security forces and Kurdish militants. All the resisting neighbourhoods of Sur were razed to the ground, and close to 24,000 residents were displaced. Since then, a massive urban transformation project for Sur has been in the making. The everyday survival of the displaced people from Sur depends on the ways they negotiate with the state in a long process of waiting. Bringing together different accounts of waiting, I intend to shed light on temporal dimensions of forced displacement embedded in the remnants of the past and shaped by present history of subjugation and state violence.

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Özge Biner and Zerrin Özlem Biner

This ethnography examines two Syrian refugee women’s experiences of waiting while living in the Turkish–Syrian border town of Antep. Since the beginning of the Syrian war in 2011, 3.5 million Syrians have left their homes to seek refuge in Turkey. With the 2014 Temporary Protection Regulation granting Syrians temporary residence and limited access to social services, the Turkish state developed state of exception strategies aimed at minimising the impact of incoming refugees. Living within the temporality of war and refugeehood, Syrian refugees are subjected to various forms of waiting that are constitutive of temporal dispositions and strategies with which they negotiate the vicissitudes of the war, the precariousness of refugee life in Turkey, their emotionally and politically charged sojourn in the borderlands close to their home, and their future‐oriented expectation of war’s end. Engaging with the anthropological concepts of waiting, patience and migration, we examine how two Syrian women refugees navigate the uncertain temporality of their lives. To cope with the Turkish state’s arbitrary exceptional policies that constantly pause and interrupt the flow of daily life, they replace waiting for the demands of the present with forms of patience that keep their future expectation of return to Syria alive.

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Curfew ‘until further notice’

Waiting and spatialisation of sovereignty in a Kurdish bordertown in Turkey

Omer Ozcan

This paper explores counterinsurgency strategies of the Turkish state during the 1990s and how they affected people’s experience of time and space in Yüksekova, a Kurdish border town in the south‐eastern tip of Turkey. The paper takes up the perspective of children to think about how forcing people to wait indefinitely enables new forms of population and territorial control. Drawing on autobiographical and ethnographic accounts, the paper demonstrates how the Turkish state establishes and maintains its sovereignty in Kurdish borderlands by constricting space, forcing a different rhythm onto the practices of everyday life and instilling ordinary existence with a sense of uncertainty.

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Introduction

On the politics of waiting

Zerrin Özlem Biner and Özge Biner

: This special section sheds light on the relationship between sovereignty and temporality through practices of waiting in the militarised Kurdish cities and border provinces of Turkey. It reveals different feelings, practices, discourses, and imaginations derived from the waiting experience of citizens and refugees living in the midst or aftermath of the states of exceptions at the margins of the sovereign states.

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Active Waiting and Changing Hopes

Toward a Time Perspective on Protracted Displacement

Cathrine Brun

This article introduces a time perspective on 'protracted displacement' and seeks to theorize 'agency-in-waiting' through a focus on the ways in which people simultaneously carry on during displacement, feel trapped in the present, and actively relate to alternative notions of the future. The article analyzes the protracted case of internally displaced Georgians from Abkhazia and the dominant discourse of return that characterizes their lives in displacement. Changing notions of hope are analyzed in order to understand the role that an uncertain future plays and the potential for agency that people develop during displacement. Agency-in-waiting and future perspectives, it is suggested, contribute valuable conceptual and political dimensions to the ways in which protracted displacement can be understood and addressed.

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Giving Aid Inside the Home

Humanitarian House Visits, Performative Refugeehood, and Social Control of Syrians in Jordan

Ann-Christin Wagner

volunteers, local fishermen, academics, journalists, and undefinable others were waiting on the island’s pebbled shores, rushing towards each newly arriving boat. Papataxiarchis’s description recalls my volunteering experience in Mafraq: the co-presence of

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Paul Stephenson

The Canada/U.S. border has not shifted physically in many years but psychologically the border is in a very different place today than before 9/11. While the various agreements of the late 1900s seemed to indicate that the border was becoming an informal formality, the events of 9/11 resulted in a significant increase in wait times as security protocols were tightened. This review article considers recent scholarship on border mobility, waiting, and their implications moving forward.

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Andrey Vozyanov

Mobility requires waiting, especially in intermodal transportation systems. People must wait in airports, stations, and vehicles; at bus stops; in queues at registration desks and luggage checks; at boarding; and elsewhere. Waiting is part of the public transportation routine. As Ohmori and Harata report, an average commute time for train commuters in Tokyo is sixty-nine minutes.