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Kate Pride Brown

demand more water supplies, while pollution, salinization, and climate change threaten resources that already exist. In the United States and throughout the developed world, cities have large, complex systems for the delivery of freshwater to a

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Hydrologic Habitus

Wells, Watering Practices, and Water Supply Infrastructure

Brock Ternes and Brian Donovan

Groundwater levels all over the world have been rapidly declining, and some of the largest aquifers (underground reservoirs of freshwater) on the planet are overstressed. As critical sources of water, aquifers remain the greatest defense against

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Erik Gawel and Kristina Bernsen

Although the traditional approach in water resources management is to address water-related scarcity problems at the local or regional scale, some see water as a global resource with global drivers and impacts, supporting the argument for a global governance of water. If water is not appropriately priced, or if “poor water governance“ creates adverse incentives for resource use in countries that export “virtual water,“ then increased demand from the world market may lead to the overexploitation of water or increasing pollution. Is this reason enough for a global governance of regional water-scarcity problems? On which scale should water-management problems actually be addressed, and can global action compensate for local and regional governance failure? The paper argues that compensating globally for regional governance failure could cause “problems of fit“ and present severe downside risks.

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Capacity as Aggregation

Promises, Water and a Form of Collective Care in Northeast Brazil

Andrea Ballestero

water, scholars have documented the fraught and unequal implications of material scarcity and excess, and of its commodification or recognition as a right ( Aiyer 2007 ; Anand 2011 ; Ballestero 2015 ; Barnes 2014 ; Carse 2012 ; Morita 2016 ). Antina

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Bringing water challenges to target groups

French water utilities within the European legislative context

Céline Hervé-Bazin

English abstract: Water utilities have a strong potential for bringing key messages to water users, such as beneficiaries or non-state actors who will usually join together to manage water resources more effectively or based on participation of end-users. Water utilities have the possibility to convey local messages and to organize events that can generate changes. In this framework, they are important leaders for water communication. My main research interest is to consider the constraints to the communication of French water utilities on water resources in the European environment. I want to provide a theoretical concept to the communication of water utilities, analyze actual practices and case studies in order to highlight its main characteristics, and further study messages and the integration of targets groups throughout communication processes related to water issues. The main purpose of this publication is to analyze the specificities of communication by water utilities in France on water management resources, how they interact with their different target groups, and how they potentially contribute to the implementation of the European legislation. This article questions the way communication tools and strategies contribute to better implementation of EU water policies.

Spanish abstract: Las compañías de agua tienen un fuerte potencial para transmitir mensajes clave a los usuarios del agua, por ejemplo, a los beneficiarios o a los actores no estatales, quienes normalmente se unirán para gestionar los recursos hídricos de forma más eficaz o en base a la participación de los usuarios finales. Las compañías de agua tienen la posibilidad de transmitir mensajes locales y organizar eventos que pueden generar cambios. En este contexto, las compañías son importantes líderes para la comunicación sobre el agua. Mi mayor interés de investigación es considerar los límites que se ejercen sobre la comunicación de las compañías francesas en materia de gestión de recursos hídricos en el contexto europeo. Deseo proporcionar un concepto teórico a la comunicación sobre el agua y analizar las prácticas vigentes y casos de estudio con la finalidad de resaltar sus características más importantes, así como estudiar los mensajes y la integración de los públicos objetivo a lo largo de los procesos de comunicación sobre asuntos hídricos. El objetivo más importante de esta publicación es analizar las especificidades de la comunicación de las compañías de agua en Francia sobre el manejo de los recursos hídricos; cómo interactúan estas con los diferentes públicos objetivos y cómo contribuyen potencialmente a la implementación de la legislación europea. Este artículo cuestiona cómo las herramientas y estrategias de comunicación contribuyen a una mejor implementación de las políticas europeas sobre el agua.

French abstract: Les collectivités peuvent jouer un rôle clé pour transmettre des messages aux utilisateurs de l'eau, c'est-à-dire, l'ensemble des bénéficiaires ou la société civile qui peut être amené à participer à la gestion des ressources en eau. Les collectivités ont la capacité de sensibiliser à travers des outils locaux et d'organiser des événements qui peuvent changer les comportements des personnes touchées par un phénomène proche de chez eux. A ce titre, les collectivités peuvent devenir des porte-parole importants pour communiquer sur la préservation de l'eau. Notre recherche considère les limites qui s'exercent sur la communication des collectivités françaises en matière de gestion des ressources en eau dans le contexte législatif européen. Nous souhaitons éclairer la communication des collectivités à partir de l'analyse des pratiques actuelles et différentes études de cas afin d'en établir ses caractéristiques. L'enjeu est d'étudier l'adéquation entre les messages et les groupes cibles choisis au cours des différentes campagnes de communication dédiées aux défis de l'eau. Notre but est de détacher des éléments théoriques et si cette communication répond à des codes propres à toute communication locale sur l'eau. A partir de ces spécificités, nous étudierons dans quelle mesure les municipalités interagissent avec leurs publics cibles afin de faciliter l'application de la législation européenne à l'échelle locale. Nous analyserons en quoi ces outils et stratégies participent en effet, à la réalisation des directives européennes sur l'eau.

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Neoliberal Water Management

Trends, Limitations, Reformulations

Kathryn Furlong

The impact of neoliberal policy reform on water management has been a topic of significant debate since the mid-1980s. On one side, a number of organizations have generated an abundant literature in support of neoliberal reforms to solve a range of water governance challenges. To improve water efficiency, allocation, and management, supporters have advocated the introduction and/or strengthening of market mechanisms, private sector ownership and operation, and business-like administration. Other individuals and groups have responded critically to the prescribed reforms, which rarely delivered the predicted results or became fully actualized. This article endeavors to articulate the varying sets of claims, to analyze the trends, to test them against their forecasted benefits, and to examine certain prominent proposals for reforming the reforms. The water sector experience with neoliberalization reveals several sets of contradictions within the neoliberal program, and these are discussed in the final section of the article.

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Infrastructures of progress and dispossession

Collective responses to shrinking water access among farmers in Arequipa, Peru

Astrid Oberborbeck Andersen

cultivated by individual farmers. La chacra is a site of production, of cultivation, where soil, sun, water, hands, and tools work together to make crops: cauliflower, garlic, lima beans, potatoes, and alfalfa, a type of forage that feeds chickens, guinea

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Julia Baird, Ryan Plummer, Diane Dupont, and Blair Carter

Drinking water quality problems are persistent and challenging for many of Canada's First Nations communities despite past and ongoing initiatives to improve the situation. These initiatives have often been employed without consideration for understanding the social context that is so critical for the development of appropriate water governance approaches. This article offers insights about the relationship between institutions for water governance and perceptions in three Ontario First Nations communities. Similarities among communities were particularly noticeable for gender where women valued water more highly and were less content with water quality. The findings presented here highlight potential impacts of displacement, gender, and water sources on perceptions of water quality and offer initial insights that indicate the need for further research to consider the potential for adaptive governance approaches that enhance fit between problem and social contexts.

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William R. Thompson

Evidence on river flow levels and other forms of climate indicators suggest significant variation in climate and water availability within the Bronze Age period. Intermittent deterioration in climate appears to have contributed to periodic crises (toward the ends of the fourth, third, and second millennia, as well as in the middle of the second millennium) manifested throughout the Near East. These periodic crises are associated variably with hinterland pressures on urban centers, governmental collapse, and, to a lesser extent, economic contraction. Climate was probably not the primary driver of these times of troubles, but climatic deterioration systematically made things worse.

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Fetching Water in the Unholy Hours of the Night

The Impacts of a Water Crisis on Girls' Sexual Health in Semi-urban Cameroon

Jennifer A. Thompson, Fidelis Folifac, and Susan J. Gaskin

In sub-Saharan Africa, girls' daily household chores often involve fetching water for their households. This article addresses the impact of uncertain water access in semi-urban Cameroon given the problems of rapid urbanization and increasing demands for water. A school competition engaged youth and key water sector actors in a dialogue about the water crisis in Buea town, and this resulted in the publication of the water distribution schedule. The event also drew attention to the gendered implications of the crisis in relation to girls' sexual health. Our analysis suggests that girls fetching water face multiple layers of risk that include gender-based violence and blame resulting from the gendered stigma attached to young people's behavior—particularly that of girls. All this serves to increase the moral panic surrounding youth sexualities. We explicitly use the term sexualities (plural) here to recognize the multiple ways in which sexualities may be expressed, constructed and experienced (Arnfred 2005). This research points to the dire need to better understand and consider within water management strategies how girls cope with and confront these risks.