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An Ethics of Response

Protestant Christians’ Relation with God and Elsewheres

Ingie Hovland

’ across the world. They knew there were already thousands of Lutheran ‘mission women's groups’ ( misjonskvinneforeninger ) across Norway, in which women came together every month to work on handcrafts. They periodically sold their crafts, often at ‘mission

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Making an Appearance

The Formation of Women's Groups in Hungary

Katalin Fábián

This essay presents a historical analysis of Hungarian women's movements from the late eighteenth century until recent years. As women's organising in Hungary responded to both internal and international economic and political forces, it also revealed four sets of connections across the diverse historical landscape. First, these groups have framed their political aims to achieve greater legitimacy by selectively emphasising their international connections. The second parallel is the particularly harsh treatment women's groups have received when the dominant ideology changed. Third, in response to this treatment and for sheer self-preservation, women activists re-framed contemporary events and re-interpreted history in general and women's history in particular to strengthen their sense of identity and self-justification. The fourth common feature is the often difficult relationship between women's groups and the state. These four features potentially counterbalanced the many disagreements among women's groups over what they perceive to be women's appropriate roles and the definition of feminism, and persistently led to women's mobilisation and actions. Controversies around feminism ignite and fundamentally influence how and why women's groups become implicated in politics. Looking at the case of Eastern Europe, and especially focusing on Hungary, this essay argues that feminism has helped to establish much common ground among activists.

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Anna Lopes

This article provides a reassessment of the Berlin socialist women's movement of the mid-1890s as a historically significant attempt to establish a new kind of gender politics. The article shows how the movement provides an entry point to a broader, richer, more complicated feminist resistance than previously recognized. The historiographical processes that have narrowed interpretations of the movement are explored through a feminist-Foucauldian lens, which reveals the more collaborative activities and fluid alliances both among the women's groups and between them and a wider circle of social democratic men. A feminist-Foucauldian approach shifts attention to the movement's formation as an effect of power, highlighting its innovative organizational style, leadership, theorists, ideas, and resistance activities.

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Engaging in 'Engaged' Anthropology

Some Pitfalls in a Development Consultancy

Pat Caplan

What does it mean to do engaged anthropology? How is it different from that which is disengaged? Does it mean being some kind of activist or advocate? Is it a form of 'action research'? More pertinently for the purposes of this article, are anthropologists who do consultancies also 'engaged'? This article discusses what happened when in 2003 I accepted an invitation from a Scandinavian women's organisation to go to Tanzania the following year and take part in an evaluation of the women's group they had been funding. Here I consider not only some of the perhaps inevitable pitfalls, contradictions and difficulties of carrying out such a consultancy but also the extent to which anthropologists themselves are part of the encounter and thus inevitably part of the material of fieldwork. It is shown that being an engaged anthropologist is a risky business before, during and after such projects. This does not mean that engagement should be avoided, and indeed such a stance may provide exceptional insights which one of greater detachment might miss.

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Rafael Guendelman Hales

People's Group and the Women's Group. Even though I became involved with both groups, it was the latter group that I established a deeper connection with and decided to collaborate with. Working exclusively with the Women's Group was not something I had

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Ioana Cîrstocea

dialogue, and became a hub for the circulation of information, contacts, and academic and activist publications dedicated to gender politics in the ECE region and beyond. Numerous women's groups that emerged in the 1990s in the postsocialist countries

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Sakai Magara

Activist Girl of Early Twentieth Century Japan

Barbara Hartley

first women's group in Japan to advocate for socialist ideas. [The Society formed] the year I left girl's school when I was eighteen by the Asian year count [according to which a child is one at birth], the same age as a current third year high school

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Raewyn Connell

went unopposed; there was scorn and resistance from the start. Media jeered at “Libbers,” some scientists declared it was all a question of hormones, some clerics discovered patriarchal verses in the Scriptures. Some pro-patriarchy women's groups

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Soheila Shahshahani

establish an academic women's group to discuss our problems. Some important women scholars of the time came to the meeting, and it was simply pointed out by women colleagues that I should not do this. So, I had to learn many things by myself, and not engage

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“To Tell It as We Know It”

Black Women's History and the Archive of Brexit Britain

Kennetta Hammond Perry

Black Women's Group and the Organisation of Women of African and Asian Descent (OWAAD). 15 Likewise, as part of understanding the context of the book's production one must also consider some of the major flashpoints in the history of race politics that