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Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild

Two of the earliest women's suffrage victories were achieved in the Russian Empire, in Finland and Russia, as a result of wars and revolutions. Their significance has been largely ignored, yet study of these achievements challenges the standard paradigms about the conditions (struggle within a democracy, geographic location on the 'periphery'), which favoured early suffrage breakthroughs. This article analyses the particular circumstances in Finland and Russia, which, in a relatively short amount of time, broke down resistance to giving women the vote. An examination of the events surrounding the February 1917 Russian Revolution, which toppled the Tsar, demonstrates the significant role of women in initiating and furthering the revolutionary momentum as well as fighting for their own rights. Both the Finns and the Russians pioneered in extending the legacies of the French and American Revolutions to include women.

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From West to East

International Women's Day, the First Decade

Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild

The year 2010 was the centennial of Clara Zetkin's proposal for an annual women's holiday, which became known as International Women's Day, and 2011 was the centennial of its first celebrations. The first ten years of the holiday's existence were a particularly tumultuous time in world history, with the advent of World War I, revolutionary upheavals in some of the major combatant countries, and the demise of the German, Habsburg, Ottoman, and Russian empires. During this time, International Women's Day celebrations quickly gained great popularity, and in 1917 sparked the February Russian Revolution. This article focuses on the development of the holiday from its U.S. and Western European origins and goal of women's suff rage, to its role in empowering Russian women to spark a revolution, and its re-branding as a Soviet communist celebration. Special attention is paid to the roles of two prominent international socialist women leaders, Zetkin and Alexandra Kollontai, in shaping the holiday's evolution.

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A Great Endeavor

The Creation of the Hungarian Feminist Journal A Nő és a Társadalom (Woman and Society) and Its Role in the Women's Movement, 1907–1913

Orsolya Kereszty

The monthly journal A Nő és a Társadalom (Woman and society) was launched in 1907 by two organizations, Feministák Egyesülete (Association of Feminists) and Nőtisztviselők Országos Egyesülete (National Organization of Female Clerks) in Budapest. Based on archival research, this article describes the foundation of the journal in 1907, the working methods it strived to adopt, and the role editor-in-chief Róza Schwimmer played during this period. The article shows that A Nő és a Társadalom performed a variety of crucial functions in the Hungarian women's movement of the time, including that of being a means of informal education for its readers.

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Interwar Fascism and the Franchise

Women's Suffrage and the Ligues

Daniella Sarnoff

This article addresses the fascist leagues' policies and philosophies regarding the political role of women, particularly the question of female suffrage. Unlike the parliamentary Right, which did not attempt to mobilize women until 1935, the fascist leagues envisioned women as key political players as early as 1924. Often invoking female work and sacrifice during the war, as well as women's supposedly superior moral aptitude, the leagues presented themselves as the forces that truly respected women's potential and importance in the state. To the leagues the domestic identities and concerns of women were not only compatible with fascist notions of politics, but rendered women potentially better fascists and citizens. Leaders of the organizations expected women to be wives and mothers, producing more children for France, while at the same time the leagues advocated that women engage in national politics and world affairs.

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Converging Suffrage Politics

The Romanian Women's Movement in Hungary and Its Allies before World War I

Oana Sînziana Păltineanu

This article focuses on the Romanian women's movement in Hungary before World War I and on its veiled suffrage politics. The first part of the article presents an overview of the organizational history of the Romanian women's movement from 1850 to 1914. The establishment of the Union of the Romanian Women in Hungary in 1913 constitutes a key event in this account. The second part of the article addresses the politics behind the Union and explores the converging suffrage politics of two more historical actors: the internationalization strategies of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA) and the suffrage politics of the Romanian National Party in Hungary. The article concludes that the Union's actions resembled those of similar organizations in Austria-Hungary that sought to join the IWSA, indicating that the Union may have been preparing to adopt a pro-suffrage position.

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Kak v revoliutsionnoe vremia Vserossiiskaia Liga Ravnopraviia Zhenshchin dobilas' izbiratel'nykh prav dlia russkikh zhenshchin

(How in the revolutionary time the All-Russian League for Women's Equal Rights won suffrage for Russian women)

Olga Zakuta and Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild

The text below was published by Olga Zakuta as a brochure in 1917. Olga Zakuta was a member of the Board of the Vserossiiskaia Liga Ravnopraviia Zhenshchin (Russian League for Women’s Equal Rights) when she wrote this vivid description of the demonstration of 19 March 1917 in revolutionary Petrograd that won Russian women suffrage. Little else is known about her.

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Jennifer Anne Boittin, Christina Firpo, and Emily Musil Church

This article looks at French Indochina, metropolitan France, and French West Africa from 1914 through 1946 to illustrate specific ways in which French colonial authority operated across the French empire. We look at how colonized people challenged the complex formal and informal hierarchies of race, class, and gender that French administrators and colonizers sought to impose upon them. We argue that both the French imperial prerogatives and colonized peoples' responses to them are revealed through directly comparing and contrasting various locales across the empire. Our case studies explore interracial families and single white women seeking compensation from the French in Indochina, black men de ning their masculinity, and Africans debating women's suffrage rights.

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Des hommes et des citoyens

Paternalism and Masculinity on the Republican Right in Interwar France, 1919-1939

Geoff Read

"Des Hommes et des citoyens: Paternalism and Masculinity on the Republican Right in Interwar France, 1919-1939," explores the masculine ideals of France's three main right-of-centre republican parties during the interwar period: the Fédération républicaine, the Parti démocrate populaire, and the Alliance démocratique. These parties desired men to be determined, principled, inflexible, respectable, hard-working, selfless, paternalist, republican and nationalist, and to father as many legitimate children as possible. Moreover, a discourse of paternalism pervaded the republican right's rhetoric and ideology, thereby providing the basis for many of its policies, as well as an obstacle to those, including feminists, who wished to challenge the status quo. This paternalism was consonant with the parties' class position and commingled with a masculine conception of citizenship that underlay the parties' principles and obstructed proponents of women's suffrage.

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Sercan Çınar and Francisca de Haan

years,” lasting roughly until the 1980s. 7 Thus, Tekeli challenged the conventional and official Kemalist discourse that emphasized that the early republican regime had granted women suffrage and civil rights, while omitting women’s own role and their

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Women and War in the Balkans

A Comparative Review Essay

Maria Bucur

to the scenes described in this book and make the necessary connections to enable us to better appreciate why the Romanian political leadership was so fundamentally opposed to women's suffrage. But the book reminds us that neither the liberals nor the