History textbooks are sources of collective memory and can thus be read as "autobiographies" of nation-states. History textbooks used to be anchored in national traditions, ultimately legitimizing the rationale of nation-states. In questioning the sole validity of national history, social movements since the 1960s and the process of globalization became the seedbeds for the deconstruction of master narratives. Because of their instrumental character as teaching tools, textbooks in general allow researchers to decipher the normative structures of societies. The information revolution since the 1970s has dethroned textbooks as the sole means of instruction in classrooms, and led to the development of different approaches for the analysis of textbooks. Today's globalizing world demands new reference frames for teaching and learning. In the second part of this article, eight clusters that are pertinent for orientation in the perplexing realities of the present are drafted: challenges resulting from the revolution in information technologies; the changing world of work; contradictory tendencies in globalizing processes; the impact of a new turbo-capitalism with its de-legitimizing impact on political systems; unequal developments leading to an ever increasing inequality on a global as well as on local levels; the increase of worldwide migration and its impact on classrooms; contested memories in societies that reposition themselves in a world that has grown together and re-fragmented at new seams; and finally, the crisis in orientation and values and the personal costs resulting from the perplexities and insecurities of the world.
Thoughts on Textbook Analysis, Teaching, and Learning
, around the same time as the appearance of some of Shakespeare’s Mature Comedies. 3 Ibid., 79. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid., 87. 6 Ibid. 7 Kojin Karatani, The Structure of World History: From Modes of Production to Modes of Exchange , trans. Michael K. Bourdaghs
The Global Idea of 'the Commons'
Donald M. Nonini
What is now at stake at this point in world history is control over ‘the commons’—the great variety of natural, physical, social, intellectual, and cultural resources that make human survival possible. By ‘the commons’ I mean those assemblages and ensembles of resources that human beings hold in common or in trust to use on behalf of themselves, other living human beings, and past and future generations of human beings, and which are essential to their biological, cultural, and social reproduction.
The Use of Filmic Techniques in Colonial Revisionism in the 1920s
Translator : Katherine Ebisch-Burton
Academic history has begun only relatively recently to study films as historical sources, and thus far it has focused principally on feature films to the exclusion of nonfictional cinema, despite the use of educational films for propaganda as early as the interwar period. This essay examines the extent to which educational films of this period employed a range of techniques to reach their viewers and encouraged them to take the film’s argumentation on board. Categorizing these techniques as either narrative strategies or visual effects, we contextualize their use by taking the film Die Weltgeschichte als Kolonialgeschichte (“World History as Colonial History,” 1926) as an example.
International Women's Day, the First Decade
Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild
The year 2010 was the centennial of Clara Zetkin's proposal for an annual women's holiday, which became known as International Women's Day, and 2011 was the centennial of its first celebrations. The first ten years of the holiday's existence were a particularly tumultuous time in world history, with the advent of World War I, revolutionary upheavals in some of the major combatant countries, and the demise of the German, Habsburg, Ottoman, and Russian empires. During this time, International Women's Day celebrations quickly gained great popularity, and in 1917 sparked the February Russian Revolution. This article focuses on the development of the holiday from its U.S. and Western European origins and goal of women's suff rage, to its role in empowering Russian women to spark a revolution, and its re-branding as a Soviet communist celebration. Special attention is paid to the roles of two prominent international socialist women leaders, Zetkin and Alexandra Kollontai, in shaping the holiday's evolution.
Dark ages is a familiar, if untheorized, term of world history. We propose to generalize that concept, and to reinterpret it as "ages of reorganization." We do this by viewing the two major periods of past dark ages as phases of world community formation—this being one of a cascade of processes that make up world system evolution. This reconceptualization allows us to see contemporary developments as the onset of another millennial age of readjustment, understood also as a world system mechanism of self-organization. It is a means whereby the threatening features of earlier developments—those of the preceding ages of concentration—are reined in automatically, as it were, to contain the dangers that they might harbor. We propose to take up these themes, recently opened up by Sing Chew in two recent papers (2002a, 2000b), and will review the following questions in response (in the light of the recently consolidated "World Cities" database): (1) How robust is the concept of dark ages? (2) Have dark ages been features of world system history? (3) Are there grounds to assume the workings of an evolutionary process? (4) Have we already entered upon the modern age of reorganization?
Matthew P. Romaniello
contribution to Sibirica. Last year I was presented the opportunity to become the editor of The Journal of World History for the next five years, which is a full-time obligation. I am excited to let you know that I have been succeeded as editor by Jenanne
and central part of our article is divided into three sections, addressing the following topics respectively: the presentation of the advent and doctrine of Islam; the depiction of Islamic states and societies throughout world history; and the
Matthew P. Romaniello
hierarchy on Siberia and its indigenous populations. While the turn toward Siberia is a more recent development of my own studies, much of my career to date has been in an editorial capacity. This includes three years as the editor of the Journal of World
Holocaust in Albanian education materials, its analysis is limited to one history curriculum (2008) and five world history textbooks published between 1997 and 2010. 7 The second publication offers a detailed analysis of the presentation of the Holocaust in