This article compares and contrasts liberal democracy and national democracy. It attempts this by focusing on each of these as specific state forms with an effectivity or 'tilt' of their own which includes a determinate preconstruction of the category of the People. It is argued, inter alia, that internal to national democracy is a conception of colonialism (and anti-colonialism) and that the national-racial reference is thus internal to the national democratic conception of equality. In conclusion it is proposed that the tilt of a state form is expressed via the distinction of grammatical mood between the imperative and the subjunctive and that the 1994 South African Constitution, when read in this way, is more liberal democratic than national democratic.
Dig Less, Catalog More
Julia A. King
Legacy collections are an increasingly valued source of information for researchers interested in the study and interpretation of colonialism in the Chesapeake Bay region of North America. Through the reexamination of 34 archaeological collections ranging in date from 1500 through 1720, researchers, including the author, have been able to document interactions among Europeans, Africans, and indigenous people in this part of the early modern Atlantic. We could do this only because we turned to existing collections; no single site could reveal this complex story. This article summarizes the major findings from this work and describes the pleasures and challenges of comparative analysis using existing collections. Collections-based research can also be used to inform fieldwork, so the legacy collections of tomorrow are in as good shape as possible. Indeed, collections-based work reveals the need for a critical dialogue concerning the methods, methodology, and ethics of both collections- and field-based research.
A section of the controversial 2005 exhibition La Mémoire du Congo at the Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale in Brussels, Belgium, raised the sensitive topic of the nature of the photographic evidence of Belgian atrocities. The curatorial slant on the photographs suggested that the knowledge that photography imparts may be based on belief rather than evidence; and that meaningful knowledge of the photographic referent is based on a relational act which establishes identity, that of recognition of the other. This ethical act runs counter to colonial ideology, and later representations of Belgian colonialism, such as Hergé's Tintin au Congo (1931 and 1946) discussed here, display tensions in their portrayal of imaging which are linked to these founding queries over the meaning of photographic representation in a colonial context.
The concept of internal colonialism h as been used to frame studies of marginalized populations exploited by the dominant or majority population. Brazil’s regional inequalities have gained notoriety, as wealth tends to be concentrated in the southern regions, while poverty is most rampant in the north and northeast. Inequality in Brazil is connected to geographic region and related to complex factors such as race, ethnicity, color, kinship, and class, and is deeply rooted in Brazil’s colonial history. Using data from in-depth, qualitative interviews with seasonal sugarcane workers, this article argues that the inequality that motivates their migration pattern is rooted in internal colonialism. These temporary labor migrants travel from northern and northeastern states to the cane fields of São Paulo, where labor demands are high and they face many of the challenges that international labor migrants encounter, including discrimination, poor wages, and inhumane working conditions.
This article examines the role played by the nòva cançon occitana (new Occitan song) in disseminating post-1968 regionalist ideologies, particularly the contention that Occitanie constituted an “internal colony” of France. While both the nòva cançon and the internal colonialism thesis proved instrumental in advancing the Occitanist cause, they also raised intractable problems. The depiction of Occitanie as a colonized territory consolidated a fragile sense of regional identity, but in so doing demanded that individuals repress the French dimensions of their identity. In addition, nòva cançon performers did not simply convey regionalist ideals through music, but were compelled to embody these ideals in their behavior, ideological stance, and self-presentation. To illuminate such tensions, the article considerers the controversy triggered when one Occitan singer-songwriter, Joan Pau Verdier, signed with an international label, thereby opening himself up to charges of having betrayed the Occitanist cause.
This article reconstructs the evolution of the representation of Italian colonialism in history textbooks for upper secondary schools from the Fascist era to the present day. Textbook analysis is conducted here in parallel with the development of Italian historiography, with special attention being paid to the myth of the "good Italian", incapable of war crimes and violence against civilians, that has been cherished by Italian public opinion for a long time. Italian historians have thoroughly reconstructed the crimes perpetrated by the Italian army both in the colonies and in Yugoslavia and Greece during the Second World War, and this issue has slowly entered history textbooks.
This article is a critique of the application of postcolonial theory to medieval texts. It focuses on two articles written by Israel Burshatin, 'The docile image: the Moor as a figure of force, subservience, and nobility in the Poema de mio Cid' (1984), and 'The Moor in the text: metaphor emblem and silence' (1985), that apply Edward Said's Orientalism to a reading of the Poema de mio Cid. The main argument is that there is a severe incompatibility between Said's theory and the society and culture of which El poema de mio Cid is a product. The author claims that Burshatin's articles fail to take into account a range of portrayals of Moors in the text, and severely misinterpret the role of the Cid's Moorish vassal Abengalbón.
This article sets out to locate a particular postcolonial museum in its
historical context, concentrating on local responses to change. It
focuses on the specific historical interaction between villagers in
northern Namibia and Finnish missionaries, and demonstrates that
the dynamics of this interaction have led the villagers to remember
the past in terms of a cleavage between pagans and Christians that
is played out in the regular performances that take place for foreign
visitors at the Nakambale museum. I argue that the performance of
‘tradition’ allows local people to transform the narrative presented in
the physical layout of the museum into one that both emphasizes
their own historical agency and demonstrates their contemporary
Christian identities. The traditional/modern dichotomy implied by
the museum’s narrative of the civilizing influence, brought by Christianity, provides them with an opportunity to do just that.