China is experiencing profound adverse environmental changes, many of them driven—and all exacerbated—by rapid economic growth. Attitudes toward the environment in China are ambiguous. Nevertheless, these attitudes are indicators of how the Chinese view the natural environment and how they are likely to behave toward it and respond to efforts to protect it. They are also important precursors to actions by the Chinese government to address environmental problems that affect the rest of the world. Environmental awareness and attitudes are associated with individuals' educational level, socio-economic status, living environment, and exposure to media. By understanding the Chinese view of the environment and the degree to which they prioritize it (or not) relative to other important issues, Chinese and international policymakers and stakeholders can enhance their capacity to perhaps start shifting these attitudes, values, and behaviors toward those that might do less harm to China's environment and the world's. This article reviews findings on environmental awareness, attitudes, and behaviors, and makes observations on their implications for environmental governance in China. Information is drawn from Chinese survey data, secondary Chinese-language sources, and related tertiary literature.
This article aims to empirically test the so called low-cost hypothesis. The hypothesis posits that cost moderates the strength of the relationship between environmental concern and behavior. The effects of the behavioral cost and environmental concern on household waste recycling were evaluated, using empirical data collected from 2,695 respondents in Cologne, Germany. Empirically, a clear effect of both behavioral cost and environmental concern can be identified. Recycling rates are higher when a curbside scheme is implemented or the distance to collection containers is low. In addition, the probability of recycling participation rises when the actor has a pronounced environmental concern. This effect of environmental attitudes does not vary with behavioral cost and opportunities. Therefore, the low-cost hypothesis is not supported by the study.
Marianne Ryghaug and Marit Toftaker
This article focuses on the introduction of electric vehicles in Norway and how electrical cars are understood culturally in relation to conventional car use. Theoretically, elements of social practice theory and the analysis of processes of domestication are combined to frame practical, cognitive, and symbolic dimensions of electric car use. The empirical data consists of individual and focus group interviews with electric car users. The analysis unpacks the implications of user-designated meaning in driving practices, competencies considered necessary when driving electric cars, and the material aspects regarded as critical features of electric car driving. Preliminary findings suggest that the practice of electric car driving alters user habits by making transportation needs more salient and raises both the technological and energy consumption awareness of users.
Maria Claudia Mejía Gil and Claudia Puerta Silva
*Full forum is in Spanish
Increased consumption of goods and services has contributed to environmental crises. Responsible consumption movements and the factors that contribute to the formation of pro-environmental behaviors have emerged in the Global North. Few studies have advanced in identifying the factors that aff ect the appropriation of pro-environmental practices in the Global South, specifically in cities of countries with emerging economies and fast urbanization. Through semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation conducted with 34 families from diff erent socioeconomic categories in Medellin, Colombia, we addressed the following questions: Do environmental concerns infl uence consumption and waste practices? What factors aff ect the appropriation of environmental practices? Although diff erent factors limit responsible consumption, the results of this study show that pro-environmental practices related to consumption and waste contribute to the formation of pro-environment citizenships.
El aumento en el consumo de bienes y servicios ha contribuido a la crisis ambiental. Pocos estudios han avanzado en identificar factores que inciden en la apropiación de prácticas proambientales en el Sur Global, específi camente en ciudades de países con economías emergentes. Mediante observación no participante y entrevistas semiestructuradas a 34 familias de diferentes niveles socioeconómicos de Medellín, Colombia, abordamos las siguientes preguntas: ¿la preocupación ambiental infl uye en las prácticas de consumo y desecho? y ¿cuáles factores inciden en la apropiación de prácticas proambientales? A partir de los resultados identifi camos que, aunque hay más factores que limitan el consumo responsable, se puede argumentar que en las prácticas proambientales de consumo y desecho se observa la formación de ciudadanías proambientales.
L’augmentation de la consommation de biens et services a contribué à la crise environnementale. Pour le Nord Global, les mouvements de consommation responsable et les facteurs intervenant dans la formation de comportements pro-environnementaux ont été exposés dans la litt érature. En revanche, peu d’études ont avancé dans l’identifi cation des facteurs qui aff ectent l’appropriation des pratiques proenvironnementales dans les pays du Sud Global, en particulier dans des villes de pays à économie émergente et à urbanisation rapide. Grâce à des observations non participantes et à des entretiens semi-structurés avec 34 familles de diff érents niveaux socio-économiques de Medellin, en Colombie, nous abordons les questions suivantes : Les préoccupations environnementales infl uencent-elles les pratiques de consommation et de gestion des déchets ? et quels facteurs infl uent sur l’appropriation des pratiques environnementales chez les familles interviewés ? Sur la base des résultats, nous identifions que bien qu’il y ait plus de facteurs qui limitent la consommation responsable, on peut affi rmer que dans les pratiques de consommation et de déchets favorables à l’environnement, on observe la formation de citoyennetés pro-environnementales.
Kah Seng Loh and Michael D. Pante
A history of urban floods underlines the state's efforts to discipline people as well as to control floodwaters. We focus on two big cities in Southeast Asia—Singapore and Metro Manila—in the period from after World War II until the 1980s. During this period, both cities traversed similar paths of demographic and socioeconomic change that had an adverse impact on the incidence of flooding. Official responses to floods in Singapore and Manila, too, shared the common pursuit of two objectives. The first was to tame nature by reducing the risk of flooding through drainage and other technical measures, as implemented by a modern bureaucracy. The second was to discipline human nature by eradicating “bad” attitudes and habits deemed to contribute to flooding, while nurturing behavior considered civic-minded and socially responsible. While Singapore's technocratic responses were more effective overall than those in Metro Manila, the return of floodwaters to Orchard Road in recent years has highlighted the shortcomings of high modernist responses to environmental hazards. This article argues that in controlling floods—that is, when nature is deemed hazardous—the state needs to accommodate sources of authority and expertise other than its own.
Between Religion, Regulation, and Globalization
Jacobsson 2000: 1 ). Busch (2000) argues that by stipulating norms for behavior and creating uniformity, standards are part of the ‘moral economy’ of the modern world, a relevant point when it comes to the emergence and expansion of kosher standards
Analytical Routes through Multiple Meanings
Translator : Jeffrey Hoff
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