Today medical research funded by resourceful commercial companies and philanthropic organizations increasingly takes place in much less resourceful settings across the globe. Recent academic studies of this trend have observed how global inequalities have shaped the movements of this research, and how human subjects who make their blood and bodies available are at risk of exploitation. In Lusaka, people expressed their fears of being used by transnational medical research projects in various idioms of concern. While such concerns were always latent, people were generally eager to join the projects. Concerns were often backgrounded in favor of pragmatic attention to—and active creation of—possibilities that might stretch well beyond the purpose and time limit of individual research projects. The article illuminates how intimately the ambiguities and possible scenarios of exploitation inherent in transnational medical research projects are intertwined with scenarios of possibility.
The Ebbing Wave in Southern Africa
Huntington's third wave of democracy was no such thing. It neither ushered in a democratic era nor was it a wave in any acceptable historical sense. What it did do was to highlight a contrast and competition among norms and values, so that what we automatically regard as undemocratic practice that is norm-free is no such thing. They might perhaps, and with a freight of contingencies, be bad norms—but they are still norms.
In the Human Development Report of 2010, 135 countries representing 92% of the world population had a higher Human Development Index than in the 1970s. Three countries were an exception to the rule: Zambia, Zimbabwe, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). As it celebrates its 50th anniversary of independence, the DRC rates itself 168th out of a total of 169 countries on the Human Development Index scale.
Religious Leadership among African Christians
Thomas G. Kirsch
This article addresses a long-standing conundrum in the anthropology of religion concerning the ambiguous status of religious leaders: they are subjects of power in that they are able to exert power over others, yet they are objects of power in that they rely on empowerment through others. Taking African-initiated Pentecostal-charismatic Christianity in Zambia as my example, I argue that church leaders' strategies to stabilize their authority have unintended consequences since these strategies can contribute to the precariousness of their positions. By drawing fundamental distinctions between themselves and members of the laity as regards their own extraordinariness, church leaders raise high expectations about their own capacities that may turn out to be impossible to fulfill. Yet even the opposite strategy of strengthening one's authority by embedding oneself in socio-religious networks can eventually lead to a destabilization of church leaders' authority because it increases their dependence on factors that are beyond their control.
Retreat into the Enchantment of the Past
C. Bawa Yamba
The article deals with two competing explanations advanced by local people in a Zambian village to make sense of the presence of man-eating crocodiles in the area. One faction explains the events in rational terms, while the other sees them as the work of witches, as a result of which they demand the return of a witchfinder, whose activities a decade ago had left 16 people dead. The article shows how the competing explanations are reflections of political rivalry between the local chieftainess and her detractors, who perceive her attempts to modernize the area as a way to line her own pocket. The rationalized versus enchanted definitions of events form the point of departure for examining some of the underlying premises of the extended-case method, namely, those of perceiving social phenomena as constituting an interrelated whole, and for determining when to close the flow of events for analysis.
State Intervention and the Overcoming of Dependency in Africa before the Crisis of the 1970s
This article is concerned with reviewing the history of developmental states on the African continent which have been neglected in this theoretical literature. It is important to consider not only successful model developmental states but also partially successful and failed attempts at developmental policies to understand the concept and its place in economic literature. Particular attention is given first to the ambitious examples of Ghana and Tanzania following independence. There is brief discussion of other individual cases, notably Zaïre and Zambia. The last part of the article looks at the developmental aspects of South African economic history between 1910 and 1990. This was apparently a far more successful project but it contained inbuilt flaws that eventually killed off dynamism. The sociopolitical context of racial dominance and separation was a major one of these flaws.
The SADC and UNASUR cases
Ana B. Amaya, Stephen Kingah and Philippe De Lombaerde
Health governance has become multi-layered as the combined result of decentralization, regional integration and the emergence of new actors nationally and internationally. Whereas this has enhanced the installed capacity for health response worldwide, this complexity also poses serious challenges for health governance, health diplomacy and health policy-making. This article focuses on one of these challenges, namely the organization of statistical information flows at and between governance levels, and the emerging role that regional organizations play therein. Regional to national-level data flows are analyzed with the use of two case studies focusing on UNASUR (Bolivia and Paraguay) and SADC (Swaziland and Zambia). The results of the analysis lead to several policy recommendations at the regional and national levels.
La gobernanza de la salud se ha convertido en una gobernanza multi-nivel, resultado de la descentralización, integración regional y aparición de nuevos actores nacionales e internacionales. Aunque esto ha mejorado la capacidad de respuesta en materia de salud mundialmente, esta complejidad plantea desafíos para la gobernanza de la salud, diplomacia en salud y elaboración de políticas. Este artículo se centra en uno de estos retos: la organización de flujos de información estadística en y entre los niveles de gobernanza, y el papel emergente de las organizaciones regionales en este ámbito. Se analizan los flujos de datos entre regiones y países mediante dos estudios de casos en UNASUR (Bolivia y Paraguay) y SADC (Suazilandia y Zambia). Los resultados del análisis arrojan recomendaciones de política regional y nacional.
La gouvernance en matière de santé est devenue multi-niveaux comme résultat combiné de la décentralisation, de l’intégration régionale et de l’émergence de nouveaux acteurs nationaux et internationaux. Bien que cela ait renforcé la capacité d’intervention sanitaire dans le monde entier, cette complexité pose également de sérieux défi s pour la gouvernance de la santé, la diplomatie et l’élaboration des politiques. L’article se concentre sur l’un de ces défi s, à savoir l’organisation des flux d’informations statistiques à l’intérieur et entre les niveaux de gouvernance, et sur le rôle émergent des organisations régionales. Les flux de données régionales et nationales sont analysés à l’aide de deux études de cas portant sur l’UNASUR (Bolivie et Paraguay) et la SADC (Swaziland et Zambie). Les résultats de l’analyse ont conduit à plusieurs recommandations de politiques.
Jack Hunter, Annelin Eriksen, Jon Mitchell, Mattijs van de Port, Magnus Course, Nicolás Panotto, Ruth Barcan, David M. R. Orr, Girish Daswani, Piergiorgio Di Giminiani, Pirjo Kristiina Virtanen, Sofía Ugarte, Ryan J. Cook, Bettina E. Schmidt and Mylene Mizrahi
. Moving by the Spirit: Pentecostal Social Life on the Zambian Copperbelt . Reviewed by Girish Daswani In Naomi Haynes’s book, ‘moving’ is an important value for Zambian Pentecostals. It is in part about economic progress and in part about spiritual
Kim Knibbe, Brenda Bartelink, Jelle Wiering, Karin B. Neutel, Marian Burchardt and Joan Wallach Scott
Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture? ” Feminist Studies 1 ( 2 ): 5 – 31 . van Klinken , Adriaan S. 2012 . “ Men in the Remaking: Conversion Narratives and Born-Again Masculinity in Zambia .” Journal of Religion in Africa 42 ( 3 ): 215