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“Communists” on the shop floor

Anticommunism, crisis, and the transformation of labor in Bulgaria

Dimitra Kofti

spectrum of meanings for the concepts of “communism” and “communist” in Bulgaria in particular ( Dimitrova 2010 ) and Eastern Europe in general ( Poenaru 2013 ) with regard to anticommunism since 1990. Anticommunism is widespread in Eastern Europe among

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Flemish Comics versus Communist Atheism

Renaat Demoen’s Au pays de la grande angoisse (1950–1951)

Philippe Delisle

Belgian comics, which originated in conservative Catholic milieux between the wars, asserted their anti-Communism from the outset. 1 The first adventure of Tintin, launched at the beginning of 1929 in Le Petit Vingtième [The little twentieth

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Adrian van den Hoven

In this hilarious satire Sartre takes aim at the French bourgeois press, pokes fun at Beckett, Camus and especially his own philosophy. He creates a fictitious swindler Georges de Valera who assumes the identity of a so-called defector Nekrassov. Together with Sibilot, who is in charge of the anticommunist page at Soir à Paris, they bamboozle the editor Palotin (based on Pierre Lazareff) and the entire board into beleiving that Nekrassov is the Soviet Minister of the Interior who has just defected. The bourgeois are portrayed as gullible mediocrities who in the name of anticommunism are willing to believe “anything” Nekrassov tells them. In the end the “genius” Nekrassov absconds with Sibilot's daughter and the paper is forced to print yet more lies to explain his disappearance. The play is composed of eight tableaux that illustrate Sartre's talents as a comic writer. The play was not a commercial success. The critics panned it and the public was unwilling to believe that all defectors from the U.S.S.R. were fakes. Also, soon after the play was produced the anticommunist hysteria began to diminish and the Hungarian uprising put paid to any notion of a benign Soviet union.

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Jean-Paul Gagnon and Mark Chou

The post-1945 world is well documented for its surge in the study of and struggles over “democracy”. The Eurocentric and then Pacific wars were—and continue to be—in part understood as a fight over ideology. Ideas of fascism, nazism, and empire as well as the totality of the state came face to face with ideas like democracy. Considered the panacea to all the world’s political ills, democracy was employed by the West as both stick and carrot. For a system of governance that simply connoted a state restrained by periodic and competitive elections, democracy’s value soon became much more significant. Through the rule of law, statespeople and scholars started equating democracy with the protection of the individual’s civil, political, economic, social, and cultural freedoms. Some also began aligning democracy with sacred principles relating to no harm, nonviolence, antiweaponry, anticolonialism, anticommunism, and antiauthoritarianism—especially during the postwar international meetings of states and, later, the cultural revolutions of the circa 1960s.

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The Specter of Communism

Denmark, 1848

Bertel Nygaard

argued instead for a strong royal power, capable of acting as a benevolent patriarch, securing the proper harmony and balance between the different elements and estates of society. 47 If the anticommunism of David, Ræder, and the landowners could be

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Editorial

Historical Perspectives – Theory and Practices

The Editors

Catholicism. 3 Ideology, this time in the Cold War period, is the focus of Philippe Delisle’s article on a Belgian children’s comic produced in both Dutch and French in the early 1950s for a readership of Catholic children. As Delisle shows, the overt anti-Communism

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Joyce Marie Mushaben, Shelley Baranowski, Trevor J. Allen, Sabine von Mering, Stephen Milder, Volker Prott and Peter C. Pfeiffer

anticommunism. Ironically, Greenberg points out, that latter motivation underpinned the Federal Republic of Germany’s democratic order despite its parallels to Nazi thought. In contrast to these four thinkers’ deep-seated anticommunism, Greenberg portrays their

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Sartre in Austria

Boycott, Scandals, and the Fight for Peace

Juliane Werner

postwar period in Austria witnessed the culmination of a tradition of anti-Communism, says historian Oliver Rathkolb: “The marauding, raping soldiers of the rearguard of the Red Army that freed Austria in 1945 finally provided a traumatic confirmation of

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David Miranda-Barreiro, Michelle Herte, Joe Sutliff Sanders and Mark McKinney

are classic twentieth-century cartoonists and comics familiar to readers of Belgian and French bandes dessinées . In successive chapters, Delisle investigates five key aspects of his corpus: Catholicism, anti-Communism, nationalism, colonialism and

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Eric Jennings, Hanna Diamond, Constance Pâris de Bollardière and Jessica Lynne Pearson

Loustaunau-Lacau and Georges Groussard were united by anti-communism, anti-Semitism, and a desire to overthrow the Republic. Often from similar backgrounds, they took a series of different paths after the defeat of May/June 1940, as this study shows. The