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Kaloyan Haralampiev and Georgi Dimitrov

[Full article is in English]

English: This article proposes a novel two-level instrument for analytically robust distinction of typological differences in the area of rule of law (ROL) among the European countries. The first level of analysis uses the EC’s first anti-corruption report data for a cumulative calculation of the country’s rank of anti-corruption potential. This procedure is repeated on a higher level of aggregation, wherein the EC’s anti-corruption ranking is combined with the rankings of the World Press Freedom and Rule of Law Indices. Thus, the authors create a database for the second level quantitative instrument, which is a variation of cluster analysis. The stable clusters obtained do not coincide with conventional blocks of countries that figure in the academic literature.. The instrument for the measurement of the ROL ranking could be even more important for the assessment of the advancement of the candidate-states toward their full compliance with the EU ROL standards.

Spanish: Este artículo propone un instrumento doble nivel para un análisis detallado de las diferencias tipológicas del estado de derecho entre países europeos. El primer nivel utiliza el primer informe anti-corrupción de la CE para calcular de manera cumulativa la clasifi cación del potencial anti-corrupción de cada país. Este procedimiento se repite en un nivel superior de acumulación donde la clasifi cación anti-corrupción de la CE se combina con los índices mundiales de la libertad de prensa y el estado de derecho. Así, los autores crean una base de datos para el segundo nivel cuantitativo en una variación para el análisis de conglomerados. Como resultado, los conglomerados estables obtenidos no coinciden con los bloques convencionales de países que figuran en la literatura académica –antiguos/nuevos estados miembros de la UE; democracias consolidadas/ sociedades post-comunistas; Este/Oeste, etc. El instrumento para medir la clasifi cación del estado de derecho podría incluso ser más importante para evaluar el progreso de los países candidatos respecto al cumplimiento total de los estándares del estado de derecho de la UE.

French: Cet article propose un instrument nouveau à double niveau pour établir une distinction analytiquement solide des diff érences typologiques en matière d’État de droit dans les pays européens. Le premier niveau d’analyse utilise les données du premier rapport anti-corruption de la CE pour calculer de manière cumulative le classement du potentiel anti-corruption de chaque pays. Cett e procédure est répétée à un niveau plus élevé d’accumulation dans lequel le classement anti-corruption de la CE est combiné avec ceux des indices du classement mondial de la liberté de la presse et de l’Etat de droit. Ainsi, les auteurs créent une base de données destinée à l’instrument quantitatif de second niveau qui est une variante de l’analyse de clusters. Les clusters stables obtenus ne coïncident pas avec les blocs conventionnels de pays qui figurent dans la litt érature académique -anciens et nouveaux États membres de l’UE; démocraties consolidées/sociétés post-communistes; Est/Ouest, etc. Cet instrument de mesure du classement de l’État de droit pourrait être bien plus important pour l’évaluation des avancées des États candidats vers leur totale conformité avec les standards de l´Etat de droit de l’UE.

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State and Warfare in Mexico

The Case of Ayotzinapa

Alessandro Zagato

More than three years after the murder and kidnapping of students of the Normal Rural School Isidro Burgos of Ayotzinapa on 26 September 2014, a coherent and truthful explanation of what happened still needs to be determined. The logistics and decision-making processes put in place before, during, and after the attack raise questions about the nature of the Mexican state, its institutions, and its order/execution chain, as well as the character of the actors involved. Starting from this paradigmatic case, the aim of this article is to examine the current increase in violence in Mexico. The analysis takes into account the dispersed ‘clusters of power’—actual war machines—that have been developing in a situation of social and political decomposition brought about by a new cycle of capitalist expansion and accumulation.

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David Lester and Sergei Kondrichin

A study of the regional variation of suicide and homicide rates in the 1990s in Siberia showed that suicide rates were associated with clusters of variables measuring economic poverty and ethnic composition, while homicide rates were associated only with a cluster of variables measuring ethnic composition.

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Peter Marcuse

This article examines the conceptual structure of the Social City Program as it has been formulated in legislation and applied in practice. It raises serious questions as to the actual impact of the program as formulated, and suggests that conceptual clarity may help both to expose its flaws and to propose alternate positive potentials. The program has a complex intellectual underlay, and clarity in the concepts used can avoid some potential dangers in its implementation. More specifically, integration is not the opposite of exclusion, and inclusion is not the same as reducing poverty. Spatial clustering can either support or weaken solidarity. Enclaves and ghettos are not the same thing, although both reflect a clustering of population groups. Finally, emphasizing "social capital" can be a way of highlighting the strength of the oppressed or blaming them for their own oppression-and these distinctions are loaded with consequences for policy.

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Ilana Tahan

Among the rich Hebrew holdings of the British Library there exists a small cluster of thirty-eight Judeo-Spanish handwritten texts, the majority of which date from between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. To the best of our knowledge, none of these manuscripts, except one, has been the topic of scholarly investigation or in-depth research. Intended at raising scholars' and specialists' awareness of this important, yet barely known literary resource, this article outlines the manuscripts' principal characteristics, such as subject matter and authorship, as well as origins (i.e. place of completion) and provenance. An inventory of all the relevant manuscripts is appended to the article.

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Imagining the Textbook

Textbooks as Discourse and Genre

Eleftherios Klerides

This article examines textbooks, especially history textbooks, seeking to contribute to an emerging body of scholarship that endeavors to understand the nature, specific properties, and characteristics of this medium. Using systemic functional linguistics and a context-based perspective of language as its theoretical point of departure, it argues for a dual imagining of the textbook as discourse and genre. In imagining the textbook, the article calls for a rethinking of comparative textbook research in the future, based on a novel cluster of conceptual priorities deriving from postmodern thought.

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In and Out of the Cage

Women's and Gender History Written in Hungary in the State-Socialist Period

Susan Zimmermann

This article discusses writing on women's and gender history in the pre-1945 period, written and published in Hungary under state socialism. Education, struggle for social change, legal history, and the history of work formed the four most important clusters in this rich body of historiography. Considering the position of these publications in the state-socialist or Cold War period and in Central Eastern European historiography and their uneasy relation to gender history as established since the 1980s, we can characterize them as a triply marginalized body of writing. The article pinpoints how the authors connected the history of women and gender to larger processes of emancipation, other categories of analysis, and transnational perspectives in historical writing, and explores their contribution to the historiography of women and gender in the twentieth century and to the intellectual history of state socialism. It also discusses why this historiography has fallen into oblivion.

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Patrick Lenta

The theme of this special issue of Theoria is the relationship between constitutions, constitutional review and democracy. The four essays that make up the issue advance new arguments, offer fresh perspectives and make innovative proposals in response to a cluster of questions: what institutional arrangement of constitutional review best realizes the ideals of democracy? How does rightsbased judicial review fare, relative to constitutional review carried out by other branches of government, from the perspectives of democratic legitimacy and epistemic competence? Are courts more likely to uphold individual rights than legislatures? If democracy requires the participation of citizens in ordinary political decision making, should citizens be permitted to participate in the periodic revision of formal constitutions?

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Bongani Nyoka

This article attempts a preliminary discussion of the three clusters of Archie Mafeje’s work. While Mafeje called for ‘non-disciplinarity’, as against ‘interdisciplinarity’ or ‘disciplinarity’, this article makes a case for why he should be read as a revolutionary sociologist. In so doing, the article pieces together some of the key elements of his oeuvre. The article consists of four main parts. The first part provides some background and contextualises this article. The second part deals with Mafeje’s programmatic critique of the discipline of anthropology and other social sciences. The third part discusses his work on land and agrarian issues in sub-Saharan Africa. The last section focuses on his work on revolutionary theory and politics, with specific reference to his assessment of the responsibility of the African intellectual.

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Mette Hjort

Norwegian filmmaker Knut Erik Jensen claims to be an ecological filmmaker. This article explores what this means. Selected examples of filmmakers’ unsound attitudes toward nature are discussed to provide a context for the proposed definition of ecological filmmaking. The latter, it is claimed, goes beyond green filmmaking, by both exemplifying and cueing proenvironmental attitudes. The proposal is to understand ecological filmmaking in terms of a cluster of intentions targeting appropriate attitudes toward the natural environment; the intention, for example, to appreciate nature on its own terms. Intentions alone, however, do not suffice, as the filmmaker’s ecologically appropriate goals must be realized in practice. A consideration of recurring features of Jensen’s cinematic style offers examples of how ecological intentions may be expressed in audiovisual works. It further raises questions about the extent to which a distinct ecological style would be the likely outcome of filmmakers’ widely acting on ecological intentions.