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“Where Is the New Constitution?”

Public Protest and Community-Building in Post–Economic Collapse Iceland

Timothy Heffernan

before. In this context, protesters demanded the resignation of the government, the organization of new elections, and the rewriting of the constitution ( Pálsson and Durrenberger 2015 ). In early 2009, after months of protests, the government finally

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Fantasy constitutions

Forest land and forced dispossession

Anand Vaidya

In his final speech as chair of the assembly that drafted India’s Constitution, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar described a contradiction between the formal equality that the Constitution guaranteed and the country’s socioeconomic inequality. This article follows two interpretive traditions of India’s Constitution: the first, developed by the Supreme Court in challenging land reform legislation, is the doctrine of “basic structure” which holds that the Constitution has an intrinsic, unamendable form. The second, in a low-caste forest rights movement in Uttar Pradesh, holds that, because of Ambedkar’s role in its drafting, the true Constitution grants lower castes both socioeconomic equality and sovereignty. Each tradition, I argue, posits a fantasy constitution that resolves Ambedkar’s contradiction, claiming to represent a founding constituent order to enact entirely different political visions.

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The Road Not Taken

Menachem Begin's Position on the Formation of a Democratic Regime for Israel

Maya Mark

The birth pangs of a country are attended by a series of decisions related to its form and structure of government and its legal system. Will the country become a presidential or a parliamentary democracy? Will it have a constitution and, if so

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Herr or Hüter of the Constitution?

The First Fifty Years in the History of the German Federal Constitutional Court

Manfred H. Wiegandt

Basic Law ( Grundgesetz ), what West Germany’s “provisional” constitution was called to indicate that a real constitution for a reunited Germany would come at some point in the future, was a reaction to the perceived shortcomings of the Weimar Republic

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The Concept of Religion in Meiji Popular Discourse

An Analysis of the Newspaper Yomiuri Shimbun

Makoto Harris Takao

. 47 However, the relevant Article 28 of the Meiji Constitution was not, in fact, an articulation of religious freedom in its most true sense, but a nominal form of protection limited by the very terminology employed in its composition. 48 As Jason A

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Carlo Fusaro

On 4 December 2016, a large majority of Italian voters turned down the most comprehensive and cohesive attempt to revise significant parts of the Constitution since 1948, namely, to overcome the country’s symmetrical bicameralism, to establish new state-region relations, and to streamline institutions, in part by abolishing the provinces and the National Council for Economics and Labor. This chapter offers an outline of the reform, which had been boldly approved by Parliament, and places it within its political and institutional context. It identifies the changes that the reform was set to introduce, attempts to assess the effects it would have had if it had been passed in the referendum, and considers some of the consequences of its rejection.

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Marjorie Lamberti

This article examines the complex interplay between the American military governor and German political leaders through an analysis of two crises that occurred over the making of the Basic Law. Why did a trial of strength between General Lucius Clay and the Social Democratic Party leadership in March and April 1949 come about? Understanding Clay's intervention in the politics of constitution-making in occupied Germany requires a more probing investigation than references to the temperament of a “proconsul” or a bias against a left-wing party. The analysis of Clay's intervention in this account shows how the Social Democrats evaded and challenged directives from the occupation authorities, and illuminates the limits of his influence over German framers of the Basic Law.

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Agnes G. Loeffler

This article offers an analysis of two medical case histories presented by an Iranian allopathic physician to illustrate the power of diet in the management of disease. Uncovering underlying cultural assumptions about health and health maintenance strategies leads to the following insights: (1) Galenic medical ideas have not been replaced by allopathic theories in the world view of Iranian physicians; (2) allopathic medical treatment options (pharmaceuticals) are applied to indigenous disease categories; (3) there is deep-seated scepticism about etiologic theories of allopathic medicine and its ability to treat certain conditions; (4) the authority of allopathic medicine is not unquestioned in Iran.

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Sarah Pink

I always use … some sort of softener, and even when they've been in the tumble dryer I do like that smell, but I do like it when they've been on the line … [although] I don't like ironing them so much when they've been on the line … I've fetched some [laundry] in today when I got in from work, and they've obviously been out there all day and they were all stiff and got more creases in, whereas when they're in the tumble dryer it's a doddle really. If you just catch them in time and they're just so easy to iron. Yes, I do like my clothes to smell nice. I definitely think about the feel of them though … once I've ironed them they feel better … (Helen, part‐time company director and housewife, age 32)

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Beverly Weber

As the current debates about the headscarf in Germany and France

demonstrate, “Islamic” veils and headscarves garner attention for

minority women in Europe to an unparalleled degree.2 For centuries,

Islamic veils and headscarves have served as powerful symbols in

Orientalist discourse, functioning as markers of the Oriental woman’s

supposed eroticism as well as convenient tropes for philosophers.3

Recent kidnappers’ demands in Iraq that France lift its headscarf ban

demonstrate the complex appropriations of Muslim women for fundamentalist

discourses as well.