One of the most influential thinkers in twentieth-century French intellectual debates, Raymond Aron (1905-1983) spent a lifetime studying Karl Marx. Aron's adaptable interpretations of the German thinker began on the eve of the Second World War, continued in his Sorbonne lectures, and ended in his celebrated Memoirs. Far from being a mere object of derision linked to totalitarian regimes, the "semi-god" provided Aron with an unrivaled stage to promote his own evolving views on an array of critical epistemological and political issues linked to heterogeneous values, historical determinism, class warfare, and the role of Communist parties. Aron cleverly segmented his views on Marx so as to address different audiences and seduce the largest possible number of young people on the side of liberal democracy.
The Marxism of Raymond Aron
Aris Accornero and Eliana Como
On Friday, 17 August 2001, right in the middle of the summer break,
while awaiting the first provisions of the newly established second
Berlusconi government, the issue of dismissals hit the headlines once
again. During his speech at the San Domenico Abbey in Sora, Antonio
Fazio, governor of the Bank of Italy, called for “greater freedom for
companies to dismiss their employees.” This request was immediately
met by positive reactions among entrepreneurs and negative ones
among unions. According to the Confederation of Italian Industry
(Confindustria), there was a need to “focus attention on the problem
of competitiveness and, as a consequence, on job flexibility.” Presenting
an opposing view, Savino Pezzotta, secretary general of the CISL
union confederation, said: “The problem is not one of laying people
off, but of taking them on.” Luigi Angeletti, general secretary of the
UIL union confederation, labeled as “false” the argument that in Italy
it is difficult to fire people. Finally, Gian Paolo Patta, secretary of the
CGIL union confederation, said: “Fazio now sounds like Berlusconi
and panders to Confindustria.” Pandering to the industrialists’ needs
was something that the CGIL had been accusing the government of
since the convention held in Parma in April 2001, when Silvio Berlusconi
pointed out the similarity between his electoral program and the
one presented by the entrepreneurs.
English Abstract: Instead of focusing directly on the epistemological problems facing the anthropologist, this paper aims to reverse the ethnographic lens and reflect first on what the ethnographic situation does for the ‘ethnographed’: what kind of work do the subjects of an inquiry engage in when they consent to an ethnographic relation? What affordances does it offer them? Briefly put, my answer to this question would be that it allows them to experiment novel ways of giving shape to and translating forms of reflexivity that are always historically and politically situated. If this is the case, it follows that the ethnographer is involved in translating a process of translation he or she has elicited, indeed co-produced with the subjects of the inquiry. What might be the consequences of viewing ethnography as the translation of a translation – as opposed to the translation of ‘a culture’?
French Abstract: Au lieu de se concentrer directement sur les problèmes épistémologiques auxquels l’anthropologue est confronté, cet article vise à inverser la lentille ethnographique et à réfléchir d’abord à ce que la situation ethnographique fait pour les « ethnographiés » : quel type de travail les sujets d’une enquête engagent-ils lorsqu’ils consentent à une relation ethnographique ? Quelles sont les possibilités que cette relation leur off re ? En bref, ma réponse à cette question serait qu’elle leur permet d’expérimenter de nouvelles façons de donner forme et de traduire des formes de réflexivité qui sont toujours historiquement et politiquement situées. Si tel est le cas, l’ethnographe est donc impliqué dans la traduction d’une procédure de traduction qu’il ou elle a instiguée/suscitée (voire coproduite) avec les sujets de l’enquête. Quelles pourraient être les conséquences d’une vision de l’ethnographie comme la traduction d’une traduction – par opposition à la traduction d’une « culture » ?
On 4 December 2016, a large majority of Italian voters turned down the most comprehensive and cohesive attempt to revise significant parts of the Constitution since 1948, namely, to overcome the country’s symmetrical bicameralism, to establish new state-region relations, and to streamline institutions, in part by abolishing the provinces and the National Council for Economics and Labor. This chapter offers an outline of the reform, which had been boldly approved by Parliament, and places it within its political and institutional context. It identifies the changes that the reform was set to introduce, attempts to assess the effects it would have had if it had been passed in the referendum, and considers some of the consequences of its rejection.
Volkert Ebert and Phillip-Alexander Harter, Europa ohne Fahrplan? Anfänge und Entwicklung der gemeinsamen Verkehrspolitik in der Europäischen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft (1957–1985) (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2010) (Reihe Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Beihefte 211), 278 pp., €52
Christian Henrich-Franke, Gescheiterte Integration im Vergleich: Der Verkehr— ein Problemsektor gemeinsamer Rechtsetzung im Deutschen Reich (1871– 1879) und der Europäischen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft (1958–1972) (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag 2012) (Reihe: Studien zur Geschichte der Europäischen Integration), 434 pp., €56
Personhood and Cognitive Disability in Urban Uganda
’ ( muzungu ), and I can imagine what amuses them. Noah and I, along with our audience, are standing in the unfenced garden of Caritas House, a Catholic home for people with cognitive disabilities where Noah lives . I was a failed farmer, and Noah was
Jason Bartholomew Scott
sense of frustration about the diminishing reach of their social media campaigns, I began to believe that digital platforms had also failed to create a reliable form of ethnographic communication between myself and my interlocutors. A frustrated sense
To be the host of so much vibrancy. To be the shadow that watches over. To be the privileged to be immersed in so much thinking in the making, To wonder what you have not done yet. To doubt. To falter. To try again. To fail even better. To
Mark S. Micale
War’s end ushered in “a second nuclear age,” an era in some ways both similar to and different from the first phase of nuclear history. 17 This second nuclear age, in which we all now live, Pinker fails to ponder, although the late Jonathan Schell
The Coronation of Bokassa the First and the (Failed) Manufacture of Charisma
Bokassa's Napoleonic mimicry as a failed manufacture of charisma, approaching the line of farce before devolving into horror. There is, unsurprisingly, an existing literature, mostly book-length works, on Bokassa's lurid reign. Geraldine Faes and Stephen