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Mapping the Food Movement

Addressing Inequality and Neoliberalism

Teresa Marie Mares and Alison Hope Alkon

In this article, we bring together academic literature tracing contemporary social movements centered on food, unpacking the discourses of local food, community food security, food justice, and food sovereignty. This body of literature transcends national borders and draws on a rich genealogy of studies on environmental justice, the intersections of race, class, and gender, and sustainable agro-food systems. Scholars have emphasized two key issues that persist within these movements: inequalities related to race and class that shape the production, distribution, and consumption of food, and the neoliberal constraints of market-based solutions to problems in the food system. This article claims that food movements in the United States would be strengthened through reframing their work within a paradigm of food sovereignty, an approach that would emphasize the production of local alternatives, but also enable a dismantling of the policies that ensure the dominance of the corporate food regime. The article concludes by offering a critical analysis of future research directions for scholars who are committed to understanding and strengthening more democratic and sustainable food systems.

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Can Consumer Demand Deliver Sustainable Food?

Recent Research in Sustainable Consumption Policy and Practice

Cindy Isenhour

From Slow Food and farmers' markets to ecolabels and fair trade an unprecedented number of consumer-based alternative food movements have risen in response to concerns about the environmental and social effects of industrialized agriculture. Some research suggests that these movements are successful in their efforts to reconnect communities, demystify global food chains, and produce sustainable foods, which are healthier for the planet and human bodies. Yet other scholars argue that the contemporary focus on consumer responsibility in policy and practice indicates much more than a process of reflexive modernization. The devolution of responsibility to consumers and the dominance of market-based solutions, these scholars argue, reflect the growing influence of neoliberal environmental governance. From this perspective these movements are naive in their assumption that consumers have the power necessary to overcome the structural barriers that inhibit significant change. These critics argue that the focus on consumer responsibility excludes those without access to consumer choice, reproduces social hierarchies, and fails to deliver the political and redistributive solutions necessary to achieve sustainability. Drawing on research across the social sciences this article surveys the existing evidence about the effectiveness of consumer-based movements in their attempts to create sustainable food systems.

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Marian Simon-Rojo, Inés Morales Bernardos and Jon Sanz Landaluze

In the aftermath of the economic crisis in the city of Madrid, food geography transformed. The urban unemployed began to engage in agriculture in periurban areas, creating new alliances between producers and consumers. Over a period of 15 years the alternative food movement organized on the fringe gave way to agroecological civic platforms that are highly assertive, and a dialogue with political institutions has opened. A key moment in the advance of this proactive attitude came about in the municipal elections of May 2015. Activists ascended to positions of political power and the backdrop of the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact, created an opportunity for the food movement to move from protest to program, and public policies permeated by agroecological principles.

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Muthanga

A Spark of Hope

K. Ravi Raman

On 19 February 2003, the armed police of the currently rightwing government of the Indian state of Kerala descended on over one thousand adivasi1 families— men, women and children—who had peacefully settled on the fringes of the Muthanga range of the Wayanad Wild Life Sanctuary, driving them out in a most brutal fashion and even killing one of those women who resisted. The state had failed to give any prior warning of the police action, nor was any attempt made toward a mediated negotiation. The police unleashed a reign of terror in the region; physical molestation of women was also reported, the latter having been substantiated by the National Women’s Commission. Those who fell into the hands of the police were brutally manhandled en route to the police station; in a bizarre innovation, the activists were forced to beat one another. The movement had been launched by the Adivasi Gothra Maha Sabha—the Grand Assembly of Indigenous People—led by a tribal woman, C. K. Janu. The demands of the Adivasi Gothra Maha Sabha for land, food, shelter, the enforcement of constitutional provisions, reparation for losses incurred by the intervention of foreign companies in their environment, etc., are paralleled in indigenous movements elsewhere, e.g., the Zapatistas in Mexico (see Collier 1994; Gledhill 1997; Hellman 2000; Weinberg 2000; Womack 1999). However, unlike other indigenous movements, the situation in Kerala has received little world attention.

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Katy Fox

This is a new year’s letter written by the founder of the Centre for Ecological Learning Luxembourg (CELL) to the executive board on the occasion of a journey to India. CELL is an independent, volunteer-led grassroots nonprofit organization founded in 2010 and based in Beckerich. CELL’s scope of action is the Greater Region of Luxembourg, hence its mode of operating through decentralized action groups in order to establish and maintain community gardens, food co-ops, and other social-ecological projects in different parts of Luxembourg. CELL also develops and organizes various courses, provides consultancy services for ecological living, participates in relevant civil society campaigns, and does some practical research on low-impact living. The broad objective of CELL is to provide an experimental space for thinking, researching, disseminating, and practicing lifestyles with a low impact on the environment, and learning the skills for creating resilient post-carbon communities. CELL is inspired by the work of the permaculture and Transition Towns social movements in its aims to relocalize culture and economy and, in that creative process, improve resilience to the consequences of peak oil and climate change.

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Johanna Gehmacher, Svetla Baloutzova, Orlin Sabev, Nezihe Bilhan, Tsvetelin Stepanov, Evgenia Kalinova, Zorana Antonijevic, Alexandra Ghit, Chiara Bonfiglioli, Ana Luleva, Barbara Klich-Kluczewska, Courtney Doucette, Katarzyna Stańczak-Wiślicz, Valentina Mitkova, Vjollca Krasniqi, Pepka Boyadjieva, Marina Hughson and Rayna Gavrilova

Gisela Bock, Geschlechtergeschichten der Neuzeit: Ideen, Politik, Praxis (Gender histories of the modern era: Ideas, politics, practice)

Helene Carlbäck, Yulia Gradskova, and Zhanna Kravchenko, eds., And They Lived Happily Ever After: Norms and Everyday Practices of Family and Parenthood in Russia and Eastern Europe

Peter Coleman, Daniela Koleva, and Joanna Bornat, eds., Ageing, Ritual and Social Change: Comparing the Secular and Religious in Eastern and Western Europe

Aslı Davaz, Es¸itsiz Kız Kardes¸lik: Uluslararası ve Ortadog˘u Kadın Hareketleri, 1935 Kongresi ve Türk Kadın Birlig˘i (Unequal sisterhood: International and Middle East women’s movements, the 1935 Congress and the Turkish Women’s Union)

Sashka Georgieva, Zhenata v bulgarskoto srednovekovie (Woman in medieval Bulgaria)

Kristen Ghodsee, The Left Side of History: World War II and the Unfulfilled Promise of Communism in Eastern Europe

Marina Hughson, Poluperiferija i rod: pobuna konteksta (The semiperiphery and gender: The rebellion of the context)

Luciana Jinga, Gen s¸i reprezentare în România comunista˘, 1944–1989 (Gender and representation in communist Romania, 1944–1989)

Roswitha Kersten-Pejanic, Simone Rajilic, and Christian Voß, eds., Doing Gender—Doing the Balkans: Dynamics and Persistence of Gender Relations in Yugoslavia and the Yugoslav Successor States

Daniela Koleva, ed., Ljubovta pri sotsializma: obraztsi, obrazi, tabuta (Love during socialism: Patterns, images, taboos)

Agnieszka Kos´cian´ska, Płec´, przyjemnos´c´ i przemoc: Kształtowanie wiedzy eksperckiej o seksualnos´ci w Polsce (Gender, pleasure, and violence: The construction of expert knowledge of sexuality in Poland)

Denis Kozlov, The Readers of Novyi Mir: Coming to Terms with the Stalinist Past

Anna Pelka, Z [politycznym] fasonem: Moda młodziez˙owa w PRL i NRD (In [political] fashion: Youth fashions in the PPR and the GDR)

Amelia Sanz, Francesca Scott, and Suzan van Dijk, eds., Women Telling Nations

Zilka Spahic´-Šiljak, ed., Contesting Female, Feminist and Muslim Identities: Post-Socialist Contexts of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo - Reviewed by Vjollca Krasniqi Rumiana Stoilova, Pol i stratifikatsia: Vlianie na sotsialnia pol vurhu stratifikatsiata v Bulgaria sled 1989 g. (Gender and stratification: The impact of gender on stratification in Bulgaria after 1989)

Svetlana Tomic´, Realizam i stvarnost: Nova tumacˇenja proze srpskog realizma iz r odne perspective (Realism and reality: A new interpretation of Serbian realist prose from a gender perspective)

Ina Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Rachel Duffett, and Alain Drouard, eds., Food and War in Twentieth Century Europe

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Jens Kreinath and Refika Sariönder

, gestures, and movements during the cem include ritual sealing ( mühürleme or dar) and prostration ( secde or niyaz ). In the posture of sealing, devotees cross their feet by placing their right big toe on the left, and by clasping their arms in front

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The Death Throes of Sacrificed Chicken

Triggering Critical Reflexive Stances on Ritual Action in Togo

Marie Daugey

audience closely watches the animal’s movements in silence. This behavior indicates that something crucial is happening, in contrast to the relaxed and informal atmosphere conducive to chatting that usually precedes and follows this inaugural act. If the