This review article gives an overview of the relevant literature about automobile culture inside the former Eastern Bloc. First, researchers have used the history of automobiles to deepen our understanding of socialist consumption practices and the history of everyday life in Eastern Europe. Second, the existing literature on automobilty behind the Iron Curtain focuses on the role that Western automotive knowledge and technology played in socialist car production and usage. Finally, the case of the automobile also offers useful insight into socialist city planning and road building, but these remain understudied aspects.
A new historiographic trend in Germany has emerged. Since 2009, scholarly publications in the formerly little-researched subfield of tourism history have proliferated on the German book market. This remarkable surge might not be surprising except for one fact: most of these publications cover the history of tourism in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), a communist state that dissolved in 1990, leaving few remnants in the unified Germany of today.
included iron objects, wine, and grains. Exports included ivory, rhinoceros horn, tortoise shells, and coconut oil ( Casson 1989, 1980 ). Peopling Apart from a note in the Periplus document that the people of Rhapta were big-bodied and that they
's, whose fondness and flair for using visually appealing advertising was already evident in the early 1900s, would be a key proponent of this new style of ad to present Iron Brew variously as a popular treat, well-earned reward, healthful energy
The Cold War in History Museums around the Baltic Sea
contacts between the nine nations have been intense and frequent over the centuries, having only been hampered in more recent times by the Iron Curtain between 1947 and 1989. As a result of these cultural contacts, the nine states share a long and
Crafting a ‘Philosophy of Praxis’ into a ‘Community of Resistance’
Carol. People stopped talking to me and worse. I was being mobbed. Theoretically speaking, the Community Round-table’s ‘community of practice’ had come crashing down on the iron rocks of bureaucracy. Brown and Duguid (1991) theorise about the
I always use … some sort of softener, and even when they've been in the tumble dryer I do like that smell, but I do like it when they've been on the line … [although] I don't like ironing them so much when they've been on the line … I've fetched some [laundry] in today when I got in from work, and they've obviously been out there all day and they were all stiff and got more creases in, whereas when they're in the tumble dryer it's a doddle really. If you just catch them in time and they're just so easy to iron. Yes, I do like my clothes to smell nice. I definitely think about the feel of them though … once I've ironed them they feel better … (Helen, part‐time company director and housewife, age 32)
In this article I examine how long-term economic strategies in the Bronze Age of northern Europe between 2300 and 500 BCE transformed the environment and thus created and imposed new ecological constraints that finally led to a major social transformation and a "dark age" that became the start of the new long-term cycle of the Iron Age. During the last 30 years hundreds of well-excavated farmsteads and houses from south Scandinavia have made it possible to reconstruct the size and the structure of settlement and individual households through time. During the same period numerous pollen diagrams have established the history of vegetation and environmental changes. I will therefore use the size of individual households or farmsteads as a parameter of economic strength, and to this I add the role of metal as a triggering factor in the economy, especially after 1700 BCE when a full-scale bronze technology was adopted and after 500 BCE when it was replaced by iron as the dominant metal. A major theoretical concern is the relationships between micro- and macroeconomic changes and how they articulated in economic practices. Finally the nature of the "dark age" during the beginning of the Iron Age will be discussed, referring to Sing Chew's use of the concept (Chew 2006).
Are the Founding Ideas Obsolete?
Isabelle Petit and George Ross
On 9 May 1950, in an elegant salon of the Quai d’Orsay in Paris, France’s Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposed that France and Germany, plus any other democratic nation in Western Europe that wanted to join, establish a “community” to regulate and govern the coal and steel industries across national borders. France and Germany had been at, or preparing for, war for most of the nineteenth and twentieth century, at huge costs to millions of citizens. Moreover, in 1950 iron and steel remained central to national economic success and war-making power. The Schuman Plan therefore clearly spoke to deeper issues.
Michael Murphy, David Belbin, Dennis Brown, David C. Green, and Matthew Steggle
The Iron-Blue Vault: Selected Poems by Attila József. Translated by Zsuzsanna Ozsváth and Frederick Turner (Newcastle: Bloodaxe, 1999), ISBN 1-85224-503-4 £8.95
Fallen among Scribes: Conversations with Novelists, Poets, Critics. David Gerard (Wilmslow: Elvet Press, 1998), ISBN 0951077686 £7.50
Breaking Enmities: Religion, Literature and Culture in Northern Ireland, 1967–97. Patrick Grant (London: Macmillan, 1999), ISBN 0-333-69829-0, Hardback £45
The Holocaust and the Text: Speaking the Unspeakable. Edited by A. Leak and G. Paizis (London: Macmillan, 2000), ISBN 0-333-73887-X, £15.99
Introduction to Renaissance English Comedy. Alexander Leggatt (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999), ISBN 0-7190-4965-2, Paperback £9.99