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Abdulla Al Sayyari, Fayez Hejaili, and Faissal Shaheen

rather than objecting to such discussions, in fact they enjoy them and get deeply involved with them. One good example of the interaction been the society’s norms and medical ethics can be seen in the field of organ transplantation. Social attitudes and

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Grounding Rights

Populist and Peasant Conceptions of Entitlement in Rural Nicaragua

David Cooper

a clash between ‘populist’ and campesino premises for the production of rights. Populist rights in Sandinista Nicaragua move from the claim that rights can be achieved only through the active incorporation of populations into organs of popular

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Stephen Berkowitz

position. In the Archives Israélites , propositions were made for more decorous synagogue services with organs and choir; abbreviated services with recitation of some prayers in French; regular and edifying sermons; improved religious education for boys

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Elizabeth F. S. Roberts

Sharon Kaufman, And a time to die: How American hospitals shape the end of life. New York: Scribner, 2004, 416 pp., ISBN 0-743-26476-2.

Lesley A. A. Sharp, Strange harvest: Organ transplants, denatured bodies, and the transformed self. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006, 322 pp., ISBN 0-520-24786-8.

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Monica Janowski, Lindsay Sprague, and Costas S. Constantinou

Feast: Why Humans Share Food. By Martin Jones. Oxford: OUP, 2007. 364 pages, £12.99 paperback, £20 hardback. ISBN 978-0-19-920901-9.

Will to Live: AIDS Therapies and The Politics of Survival. By João Biehl. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2007. ISBN: 978-0-691-13008-8.

Strange Harvest: Organ Transplants, Denatured Bodies, and the Transformed Self. By Lesley A. Sharp. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. 322 pages, £14.95 paperback, £38.95 hardback. ISBN: 978-0-520-24786-4.

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Jacob Copeman

This article explores emerging ascetic orientations toward utility and death in India. It chronicles the activities of an innovative organization that campaigns for cadaver donations for the purposes of organ retrieval and dissection by trainee doctors. This would entail dispensing with cremation, a mode of cadaver disposal newly characterized as wasteful. In order to counter 'cremation-lack', the asceticism of cadaver donation is accentuated by the organization. The group thereby reinterprets classical Hinduism according to the demands of 'medical rationality'. This produces a novel 'donation theology' and additionally serves to demonstrate the 'asceticism' by which all voluntary donors of body material are obliged to abide.

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Demetrio Cojtí Cuxil

The history of Guatemala is dominated by authoritarian and conservative governments. It is said that the country is presently transitioning toward democracy, yet the government, as well as the democratic system itself, continues to be structurally colonialist and racist. Guatemala's leaders have not realized the implications for the government and for civil society of the constitutional and political recognition of the country as multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, and multicultural. Further-more, Guatemalan political elites ask and expect that individual and collective members of society be multi-ethnic and multi-lingual, even when the government and its organs are not. The necessary transition, public as well as private, from mono-nationalism to multi-nationalism can be achieved, but it would be more efficient and consistent if the government would take heed of civil society.

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Nicholas Toloudis

Most studies of the social and political upheavals of the Second Republic treat violence as the main way people resisted the military coup and repression of 1851 and view political dissent through the lens of class. But the suppression of unorthodox political voices in the academy brings another form of resistance to light. Close personal networks and the organizational culture of the French academy distinguished the universitaires' animosity toward Louis Napoleon. To map the patterns of teachers' dissent, I use the proceedings of the Carnot Commission, an organ created by the emergency government of 1870 to gather information about the universitaires who had suffered political persecution around the time of the 1851 coup and offer them restitution. The Commission's work reveals a pattern of personal connections and distaste for authoritarianism that reflected the republican consensus as it emerged in the 1870s.

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“I satt and saw”

Negotiating the Gaze in the Travel Writings of Anthony Munday and Thomas Dallam

Chloë Houston

In “eyewitness” accounts of the Mediterranean by Anthony Munday and Thomas Dallam, assertions of allegiance to Elizabethan England are destabilized by the physicality of “looking.” Early modern theories of vision and post-Reformation constructions of the viewed contributed to conceptualizations of objectified spectacle as a source of physical threat to the viewer. This article explores Munday's and Dallam's negotiations of the physicality of visual experiences as the authors participate in interactive modes of viewing demanded by the rituals and ceremonies of strangers. Witnessing a Jesuit whipping himself before devotional objects at the English college in Rome in 1578, Munday's emphasis on his physical difference to the Jesuit reproduces the idolatrous interaction with the viewed that this author critiques. Describing his presentation of a mechanical organ to the Sultan Mehmed III in Constantinople in 1599, Dallam's spectatorship is distorted as he becomes a functional part of the ceremonial display of this instrument.

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Katja Mäkinen

The question in this article is how citizenship is reinvented and recontextualized in a newly founded European Union after the launching of Union Citizenship. What kind of conceptions of citizenship are produced in this new and evolving organization? The research material consists of documents presented by EU organs from 1994 to 2007 concerning eight EU programs on citizenship and culture. I will analyze conceptual similarities (continuities) and differences (discontinuities) between these documents and previous conceptualizations in various contexts, including citizenship discussions in the history of integration since the 1970s as well as theories of democracy and nation-states. Based on the analysis of participation, rights, and identity as central dimensions of citizenship, I will discuss the relationship of Union Citizenship to democracy and nationality.