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“Pretty as a Picture”

The Aesthetics of the Picturesque in British Travel Accounts of Tunis (1835–1887)

Imene Gannouni Khemiri

Derived from the Italian pittoresco, “from a picture,” the term picturesque defines an object or view worthy of inclusion in a picture; the meaning changed from “subjects suitable for painting” to a form of aesthetics ( Copley and Garside 1994 ). Wherein

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Eva Lezzi

This article investigates the recurring patterns in narration and visual aesthetics with which the Shoah is commemorated in children's literature. On the one hand, the essay undertakes an intercultural comparison of the differing iconographic, narrative and commemorative structures found in the varying contexts of publication, i.e. in Germany, other European countries and the United States. On the other hand, the author analyses the heterogeneous figurations and experiences of childhood on three levels of textuality: the representation of children living in the Third Reich, the intergenerational communication taking place between the narrator - often of the grandparents' generation - and the reader, and the construction of implied child readers of the picture books today.

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Picturing Politics

Female Political Leaders in France and Norway

Anne Krogstad and Aagoth Storvik

This article explores images of high-level female politicians in France and Norway from 1980 to 2010, examining the ways in which they present themselves to the media and their subsequent reception by journalists. Women in French politics experience difficulties living up to a masculine heroic leadership ideal historically marked by drama, conquest, and seductiveness. In contrast, Norwegian female politicians have challenged the traditional leadership ethos of conspicuous modesty and low-key presentation. We argue that images of French and Norwegian politicians in the media are not only national constructions; they are also gendered. Seven images of women in politics are discussed: (1) men in skirts and ladies of stone, (2) seductresses, (3) different types of mothers, (4) heroines of the past, (5) women in red, (6) glamorous women, and (7) women using ironic femininity. The last three images-color, glamour, and irony-are identified as new strategies female politicians use to accentuate their positions of power with signs of female sensuality. It is thus possible for female politicians to show signs of feminine sensuality and still avoid negative gender stereotyping.

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Picturing Boys

Found Photographs and the Transformation of Boyhood in 1950s America

John Ibson

Systematic scrutiny of everyday photographs of American boys together suggests that, as never before, homophobia became a barrier for boys in 1950s America. In a time of high anxiety regarding the possible implications of male togetherness in the United States, boys’ relationships in the 1950s, with fresh physical inhibitions, came to resemble relationships typical of older American males. Although cultural concern over homosexuality was decades-old in the 1950s and had long inhibited the various associations of older males, that anxiety may not have exacted its toll on boys together until the postwar period, establishing restrictions that continue to severely limit closeness among boys.

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Annie Renonciat

In this article I propose to elucidate the pioneering role played by the publishing house Fayard at the beginning of the twentieth century in the promotion of French comic strip and in the development of its distinctively national characteristics. I firstly review the chronology of events and publications, situating the picture stories in the wider context of the company's output, and considering their function as part of its marketing strategy. I then go on to discuss Fayard's innovations in relation to the choice of publishing formats, which cemented the link between comic strip and mass-circulation weekly newspapers, and defined it for almost three-quarters of a century as a popular genre aimed mainly, if not exclusively, at young readers. Finally, I will analyse the major formal, graphic and thematic features of the comic strips created in these magazines.

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Picturing Central Siberia

The Digitization and Analysis of Early Twentieth-Century Central Siberian Photographic Collections

David G. Anderson and Craig Campbell

This article documents over five years of exploratory work digitizing glass plate negatives across Siberia dating from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The article explains the technical and cultural challenges governing access to these collections and offers a preliminary analysis of the themes common to this collection of over 4,000 images. The article is accompanied by a photo essay, which provides a sample of the material and the attributions, as well as references to electronic resources for the full collection and guides to further digitization.

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Park Honan

A report on my experience with Shakespeare: A Life may not be generally useful, but I shall touch on factors that are changing our view of literary biography. It helps to refer to oneself and to the matter of a biographer’s outlook and feelings, no matter how deplorable the feelings. Of course, what a biographer thinks or feels is irrelevant, in one sense.We don’t care what you may have felt, for heaven’s sake; we judge your work! That is proper as far as it goes, but outlook and preparedness count in this field and so I shall allude to those. My general view is that biography thrives when we regard it as highly sophisticated, entertaining, and moving, and able to depict as much about life as works of fiction can. This genre has a certain relation to music and painting in its possible intensity. ‘All that is not useful’, says Matisse, ‘is detrimental to the effect’; the same applies to biographical narratives. Shakespeare’s life offers a special challenge, but not for any dire lack of evidence. Much depends on what use is made of abundant facts about Tudor Stratford, for example, and so on a personal attitude. My early attitude to Shakespeare was romantic and poor. For some time I thought of him as semi-divine, or as being ‘more than a man’. If I liked ‘Prufrock’, that was for its Hamlet allusions mainly. Later at University College in London, I was taken aback when my supervisor asked me to read something besides Shakespeare before trying to write a PhD thesis on the tragedies. I wrote two plays, both staged by London groups, but reviewed harshly in student newspapers, except for a remark to the effect that ‘Honan is incapable of writing anything but duologues, rather like Shakespeare in Two Gentlemen of Verona’. Finally I wrote a thesis on Browning partly because ‘Caliban upon Setebos’ reminded me of The Tempest.

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Rob Burns

Just as Berlin as a political, social, ethnic, and material entity has undergone considerable change since 1989, so too the cinematic representations of the new capital over the last twenty years or so have projected a diverse set of images of the city. This article considers a selection of fiction films that can be grouped together under three broad thematic category headings: those dealing with Berlin's past, those addressing the city's multicultural identity and, most substantially, those films in which the capital of the new "Berlin Republic" can be read as a metaphor for postunification Germany. What all three categories have in common, it is argued, is that the image of Berlin that emerges from most of these films remains an overwhelmingly negative one, with the city portrayed predominantly as a site of either conflict or disorientation.

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Marla Frederick, Yunus Doğan Telliel, and Heather Mellquist Lehto

COVID-19, Religious Markets, and the Black Church Marla Frederick My Facebook timeline lit up in early April. The picture kept appearing in post after post from close friends and respected colleagues. Regardless of whose timeline it came

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Edward Lear

A Life in Pictures

Marco Graziosi

evidence of ‘une certaine effervescence créatrice’ [a certain creative effervescence]. 1 Edward Lear, with the great number of picture stories he sent his numerous correspondents, certainly belongs to this category, but while he necessarily had little