, contemporary hyper-positivist philosophy could be cited as its intellectual foundation. Hyper-positivism, with the natural sciences as its model, has as its ‘ontological assumption that the world is orderly, lawful and therefore predictable’ ( Williams 2015: 24
Bridging the Artist-Scholar Divide
Ibanga B. Ikpe
Taking as its starting point recent claims that Jean-Paul Sartre's Critique de la Raison Dialectique was written as an attempt to overcome the historical relativism of Raymond Aron's Introduction à la philosophie de l'histoire, the present article traces this covert dialogue back to a fundamental disagreement between the two men over the interpretation of Wilhelm Dilthey's anti-positivist theory of Verstehen or 'understanding'. In so doing it counters a longstanding tendency to emphasise the convergence of Aron and Sartre's philosophical interests prior to the break in their friendship occasioned by the onset of the Cold War, suggesting that the causes of their later, radical political divergence were pregnant within this earlier philosophical divergence.
Durkheim as a positivist, fairly close to Auguste Comte, and he considered Les Règles de la méthode sociologique a mediating work that announced works of the great sociologist of Épinal. Boudon is therefore only taking up a thesis taken for granted by
Historical Justice and Cultural Memory
Victor Jeleniewski Seidler
Exploring some of the tensions in the recent international conference on 'Jews and Non-Jews in Lithuania: Coexistence, Cooperation, Violence', held at UCL in December 2012, I show how they relate to ways in which the Holocaust is to be understood and historical justice done not only to those who were murdered and suffered but also to the sufferings of Lithuanians under Soviet Occupation. Questioning the notion of a 'double holocaust' that would seek some equivalence I also interrogate assumptions informing the programme of the Prague Declaration. I explore ethical issues of what it means to do justice to the dead and how this calls for an ethical historiography that goes beyond its positivist frameworks.
In my book, The Rules of Art,2 I demonstrated that the intellectual world is an autonomous world within the social world, a microcosm which constituted itself progressively through a series of struggles. In the history of the West, the first to acquire their autonomy with regard to power were the jurists, who in twelfth century Bologna succeeded in asserting their collective independence in relation to the Prince, and, simultaneously, their rivalry amongst themselves. As soon as a field is constituted and asserts its existence, it asserts itself into the internal struggle. It is one of the properties of “fields” that the question of belongingness to this universe is at stake in the very midst of these universes. Suppose that, like a French historian by the name of Viala, one makes a study of the French writers of the seventeenth century: one uncovers lists of writers, one compiles these lists and one undertakes to describe the social characteristics of the writers. In terms of a good positivist method, it is beyond reproach; in fact, I believe that it is a serious error.
Participation as the Cornerstone of Appropriate Methodologies
prevailing neoliberal individualist ontology regarding human beings cannot constitute the ground for a public health that seeks thorough solutions for interpersonal and societal complex health issues. The same holds true for positivist, expert
Joost Beuving and Geert de Vries
example, to see ethnographers criticising qualitative sociologists for lack of immersion, ‘reflexive’ practitioners criticising colleagues for being closet positivists and feminist scholars criticising other feminist scholars for not being ‘intersectional
The Chicago School’s Struggle to Humanize Transgression
research focusing on crime and delinquency that did not follow a psychological or positivist criminology approach. The Chicago School was seeking to break away from pathology, to dislodge the dominance of Cesare Lombroso’s (1876) biological ideas of
to behaviorism, cybernetics, and systems theory more generally. The odd combination of peace politics and objectifying positivist science (see Stade 2005 ) gave birth to concepts like structural violence (that is, deprivation, repression, alienation
dispense with war. The life of the law is a struggle—a struggle of nations, of the state power, of classes, of individuals. H. L. A. Hart (1958: 614) , though positivist, proposes “we can say laws are incurably incomplete and we must decide the