retribution but also sits at the heart of an ongoing dispute about oppositional political interpretations and moral judgments that frame the last dictatorship (1976–1983). During this dark period, thousands of Argentinians were captured, brutally tortured
Convicted Military Officers in Post-authoritarian Argentina
Eva van Roekel and Valentina Salvi
‘Kammah la ˙allei ve-la margish gavra de-mareih sayeih’ [How healthy (not sick) and immune (not affected) is a man whose master favours (supports) him!]. This sentence is attributed to Rav Huna in Talmud Yoma 22b, but Rav Huna is probably not its author. It was probably a commonly known proverb, since the same sentence is also employed in Bava Kamma 20b by another amora (rabbi of the post-mishnaic period) in a different context. However, Rav Huna adds an elucidation to this proverb: ‘Saul [sinned] once and [it] cost him, David [sinned] twice and [it] did not cost him’, implying that David was ‘a man whose master favours him’. The Gemara proceeds with questioning which sins are being alluded to by Rav Huna.
Political Struggle in the Domestic Sphere in Postarmistice Hungary, 1919-1922
Emily R. Gioielli
regime’s most intense period of retribution against those whose actions during the previous year could be interpreted as supporting the revolutionary goals of the Károlyi and Kun governments. By focusing on the spaces of daily interaction between social
The following paper is a discussion of justice as a sign in transition, a sign whose meanings in post-apartheid South Africa must be legitimated by appeal to conditions radically different from those that prevailed under apartheid. I wish to explore the nature of the transformation of justice from the context of apartheid to emergent postapartheid conditions and to do so by focusing on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (the TRC) as an example of what can be called ‘transitional justice’. A common view of the TRC is that its rules for the implementation of amnesty and other related matters should be evaluated in the light of ‘ideal types’ of justice. The TRC must fall short of such ideal types, since its offer of qualified amnesty to perpetrators of gross human rights violations in exchange for complete honesty about such violations will be understood as an exigency which dispenses with a crucial feature of justice, namely retribution.
This article focuses on efforts to overcome the divide between state legality and local practices. It explores a pragmatic effort to deal with witchcraft accusations and occult-related violence in customary courts among the Miskitu people in Eastern Nicaragua, taking into account both indigenous notions of justice and cosmology, and the laws of the state. In this model, a community court (elected by the community inhabitants and supported by a council of elders), watchmen known as ‘voluntary police’ and a ‘judicial facilitator’ play intermediary roles. Witchcraft is understood and addressed in relation to Miskitu cultural perceptions and notions of illness afflictions, and disputes are settled through negotiations involving divination, healing, signing a legally binding ‘peace’ contract, a fine, and giving protection to alleged witches. This decreases tensions and the risk of vigilante justice is reduced. The focus is on settling disputes, conciliation and recreating harmony instead of retribution.
Magic, Sorcery, and Warrior Shamanism in Venezuela
In the area of the Upper Orinoco River in Venezuela, Yanomami shapori (shamans) engage in hostile acts against their colleagues and people (especially children) living in distant villages in order to inflict misery and death. These combative magical practices are primarily motivated by retribution for past assaults of a similar kind. While in most cases the shapori perform these activities intentionally, this article argues that the malevolent non-human acts are also driven by the cannibalistic nature of hekura spirits, which demand human souls. In this way, although shapori intentionally engage in bellicose activities, they must sometimes kill in order to appease the ancestral spirits and thus spare the lives of their own kin. This article focuses on the dark side of Yanomami shamanistic practices in order to counterbalance tendencies that emphasize the more positive, therapeutic aspects of shamanism, namely, its socially integrative roles.
By means of a tale of food poisoning as retribution, this article describes a kind of reasoning that consciously defies commonsense logic. The lived validity of this form of reasoning emphasizes the necessity of an epistemology for anthropology that puts the analysis of relations between people at the heart of our understanding of human reasoning and its ontogeny. An ethnographic analysis of how certain island Fijians give form to kinship relations through the production, exchange, circulation, giving, and consumption of food suggests that it is the very specificity of intersubjective relations between particular persons that make them a proper focus for the anthropologist's attention. It follows that intersubjectivity is central to anthropology as an epistemological project whose fugitive object of study can only be ourselves, even while its focus is bound to be on others.
Anti-corporate, Anti-militarist and Martyrdom Masculinities
Manal Hamzeh and Heather Sykes
This article examines the masculinities of Ultras football fans during and after the January 25th Egyptian revolution, within the interlocking systems of power of neoliberalism, militarism and Islamism. The Ultras' anti-corporate masculinities were strengthened through protests against satellite TV and the Egyptian Football Association, while they also developed anti-militarist masculinities as they protested business elites, Supreme Council of the Armed Forces and Central Security Forces. The Ultras developed martyrdom masculinities due to their shock over the Port Said stadium massacre and subsequent retribution protests. The Ultras may be reiterating hegemonic masculinities operating within the same patriarchal logic of the three regimes. Their grief and shock may be limiting their self-reflexivity and capacity to build coalitions.
Text, and Pretexts for Changing Subtext
audiences such interpretations are inadequate and the portrayal of Shylock as a ‘false-nosed, red-wigged monster … half spook, half clown’ 7 is objectionable. The solution is perhaps to accept the humanist analysis of the nature of justice and retribution
, and that perpetrators be held responsible. The problem is that revenge scenarios do not revel in the pleasures of justice so much as those of vengefulness and retribution. Revenge in film is often less about justice than it is about viewer pleasure