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Daniel Tröhler

This article investigates the development of new teaching ideologies in the context of the technocratic ideology of the Cold War. These ideologies did not simply vanish after 1989. The catchwords were “programmed instruction” and “teaching machines”, accompanied by the promise that all students would make efficient learning progress. Although Eastern and Western states fought the Cold War over political ideologies, their teaching ideologies (perhaps surprisingly) converged. This may explain why neither the apparent failure of these educational ideologies nor the end of the Cold War led to the modification of the ideologies themselves, but rather to the modification of devices serving the ideologies.

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Sybil Sheridan

My first day at Leo Baeck College, I arrived early, dressed soberly but impressively to demonstrate my serious intent. I was shown into a room where I sat with two other students among the drawings and misspelled Hebrew words of a West London Synagogue cheder class. Feeling frightfully shy, I did not introduce myself to my two colleagues, and they, being equally reticent did not introduce themselves to me. So there we sat and waited for some twenty minutes in total silence. Rabbi Albert Friedlander z'l finally came in, blinked, and asked what we were doing.

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Comic Art and Commitment

An Interview with Morvandiau

Ann Miller and Morvandiau

This interview with political cartoonist and comics artist Morvandiau focuses mainly on his 2007 comic book D'Algérie. After the murder in 1994 of his Uncle Jean, a père blanc ['white father'] in Tizi Ouzou, along with three of his fellow priests, followed by the failed suicide of his father, a Pied-noir, eight years later, Morvandiau decided to carry out research into his family and its links with France's colonial adventure. Through the resources of the comic art medium, he was able to give form to a story which is both personal and public (Figures 1-2). The subtle and sober portrayal of his search for identity is contextualised by a highly absorbing panorama of political events. In the interview, he explains some of the aesthetic choices that he made, and discusses the challenges of working from documentary material, and how he drew on the resources of the medium to tackle issues of individual and collective identity.

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Alice A. Jardine

“What Feminism?” is an extended reflection upon several generations of readers of Simone de Beauvoir, including those readers the author herself has been, from the early 1960s to the present. Of particular interest are the serious readers of Beauvoir since her death in 1986, as opposed to the many detractors who have worked hard to tarnish Beauvoir's productive influence. Among the many groups of such serious readers there are, for example, the social theorist feminists such as Susan Buck Morss; the postcolonial/transnational feminist philosophers such as Chandra Mohanty; the poststructuralist-inspired feminist writers such as Teresa Brennan; and the queer/trans readers such as Judith Butler. What we learn from them is that, going forward, the important thing is to keep excavating the deep structures of Beauvoir's thought so as to forge new pathways for new generations to address the obviously gendered and more than sobering global crises of the twenty-first century.

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Esther Claudio

Paco Roca (b. 1969, Valencia) creates stories that tackle the universal through the local. He examines historic and social conflicts through the everyday experiences of his characters, whom he treats with affection, detail and respect. His works explore personal concerns and relationships without falling into melodrama, always looking for a balanced and sober style. Arguably, the most successful aspect of his work is the harmonious, beautiful drawing, which makes it accessible and appealing to a wide audience. As is common in today’s graphic novel, his stories feature losers: characters whose struggle is finally defeated by greater forces but whose trajectory tells us about dignity, friendship and courage. In this interview, we talk about his major graphic novels, and we are given access to his methods of work.

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The Tortured Signifier

Satire, Censorship, and the Textual History of Troilus and Cressida

Roger Stritmatter

Why does the 1609 quarto of Troilus and Cressida exist in two states, each with a distinct title page (S1 and S2, Figure One)? Surely this textual doubling is the most conspicuous illustration of W.W. Greg’s admonition that Troilus is a ‘play of puzzles, in respect of its textual history no less than its interpretation’. Despite more than a century of speculation, contemporary criticism seems no closer to a satisfying solution. Traditionally, answers have focused on hypothetical market-driven preferences of the publishers, Richard Bonian and Henry Whalley: S1’s reference to performance at the Globe theatre is false because it was ‘unlikely that this play was ever performed to an audience at the Globe’ and the preface to S2 constitutes ‘an assurance that the play was designed for some private occasion or company’. Or the publishers supposed that having two different states of the title page would incite publicity and ‘stimulate sales’, or one publisher, for some unidentified reason, preferred one title page, and the other, another. Or ‘they decided to avoid a copyright dispute with His Majesty’s Servants by leaving them unnamed either in the title or the epistle’, or ‘they discovered after printing was under way that the play had held the stage only briefly but had attracted a sophisticated following’. No wonder that William Godshalk has recently chastised Troilus critics for substituting unverifiable speculation for sober interpretation of factual evidence, encouraging a disciplined return to a ‘facts first, then interpretation’ inquiry model.

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Introduction

Politics and Power After the 2017 Bundestag Election

Eric Langenbacher

provides a sober assessment of the new coalition’s foreign policy. The likely situation is an international environment with as many if not more challenges than in previous years, including Turkey, Russia, and the Transatlantic relationship, as well as

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Art of Solidarity

Cuban Posters for African Liberation 1967–1989

David Fleming

( Figure 2 ), who was the artistic director and lead designer for OSPAAAL. Some posters have striking but sobering designs; for example, “Africa” by Jesús Forjans Boade ( Figure 3 ) juxtaposes a tribal sculpture with modern weapons. Many of the posters

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Lasse Thomassen

achievement of this book is its careful and sober analysis of the prospects of struggles for equality and freedom in contemporary South Africa. Lawrence Hamilton draws on different theoretical resources for Freedom Is Power . He draws on the history of

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Mark S. Micale

, and Australia. The past generation has witnessed an outpouring of historical scholarship on this phenomenon. Charles C. Mann’s sobering pair of recent books, 1491 and 1493 , documents in heartbreaking detail the fate of millions of pre