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Student Mobility and Internationalisation

Rationales, Rhetoric and 'Institutional Isomorphism'

Vered Amit

Drawing on interviews with Canadian and Australian officials, this article examines the frame of student mobility within the broad discourse of internationalisation. Difficulties in definition and admitted shortfalls in achieving progress even on the more easily articulated benchmarks of student mobility, do not seem to staunch the enthusiasm of a variety of officials for the idea of internationalisation. This article will examine some of the contradictions framing these institutional discourses of internationalisation. These include the gaps between institutional claims and their substantiation, between lauding the internationalism inculcated by student mobility programmes and the more mixed motivations or engagements of student clients, and between claims for the entrepreneurial potential of internationalisation as against the uncertainty of its outcomes. I argue that a long-standing Western view of travel as a vehicle for self-cultivation and transformation combined with competitive efforts to keep up with perceived trends in the fields of post-secondary education are producing a momentum that is elusive even as it threatens to bulldoze its way across important institutional practices and procedures.

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Heide Castañeda

This article examines the unintended effects of policy on the cross-border health care experiences of persons from the new Central and Eastern European (CEE) states of the European Union (EU) during a time of major transition. While permitted to travel freely, most individuals from the new member states are not yet authorised to work in Germany. As a result, they face many everyday forms of exclusion, including lack of access to medical services. Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork, this article examines experiences of patients from newly acceded CEE countries. Cross-border health care highlights instrumentality because implementation has consisted only of patchwork policies and is characterised by insufficient attention to marginalised populations, such as those who are driven to seek work abroad due to economic asymmetries across borders. In the current transitional period, evidence suggests a disconnect as social rights struggle to catch up to economic ones.

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Liberal Whispers and Propaganda Fears

The American Jewish Committee and Israel’s Palestinian Minority, 1948–1966

Geoffrey P. Levin

This article examines the American Jewish Committee’s (AJC) engagement with Israel regarding the state’s Palestinian-Arab minority. It focuses on the period of military government (1948–1966), when the rights of most Palestinian-Arab citizens of Israel were curtailed under military rule. In the mid-1950s, AJC leaders became interested in examining and alleviating the plight of the Arab minority. Rather than publicly confronting Israel, the AJC privately lobbied Israeli officials on the matter and later attempted to educate Israelis about liberalism using ideas more closely associated with its work in America than its human rights advocacy abroad. To understand the AJC’s motives, the article points toward AJC’s domestic civil rights and ‘human relations’ activity, its distinct form of pro-Israel non-Zionism, and its concerns about ‘Arab propaganda’, anti- Semitism, and Jewish-Christian relations in America.

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Anne Allison

Emerging from the defeat of the Second World War, Japan shifted its national lens from empire building abroad to productivity and prosperity at home. Organized around a particular form of sociality and capitalist economics, citizens worked hard for 'myhomeism' - the attachments (of men at the workplace, women to the household, children to school) that fuelled fast-growth economics and rising consumerism. In the last two decades of economic decline and more irregular employment, the 'nestling' of family and corporate capitalism has begun to unravel. In the 'lost decade' of the 1990s, many young Japanese assumed the ranks of what activist Karin Amamiya calls the 'precariat' - those precariously un(der)employed, unable to assume the social citizenship of my-homeism, and existentially bereft. How are people not only surviving hard times but also remaking their ties of social connectedness and their calculus of human worth?

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The Long Homecoming

Ghanaian Migrant Business and Power in Veneto, Italy

Hans Lucht

This article discusses the challenge of returning home after years abroad from the perspective of Ghanaian labor migrants in northern Italy. It seeks to explore how Ghanaian migrants aft er years of hard work still find themselves fundamentally estranged from Italy and constantly must navigate day-to-day experiences of bigotry and discrimination in the workplace. Yet the migrants realize that returning home to Ghana is not as straightforward as they might have imagined when they set out, and how to protect advances upon returning to a home country that has changed rapidly during their years in Italy is a recurring subject of concern. Based on ethnographic vignettes, the article will explore West African migrants’ everyday struggles in Italy’s segregated and crisis-hit labor market.

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‘I’m like a snail carrying my entire house with me’

Doctoral fellows’ experiences of a mobile life

Lisbeth Kristine Olesen Walakira and Susan Wright

EU policies promote mobility as a part of contemporary doctoral education. EU-funded doctoral candidates are expected to move country, establish international research networks; travel for workshops, conferences and research stays abroad; and collaborate across disciplines as well as work in other sectors during their doctoral training. As far as EU policies are concerned, competence in all these ‘mobilities’ is essential for future knowledge workers in a competitive, global economy. But how do doctoral fellows themselves experience mobility? A survey of 3,410 EU-funded doctoral fellows shed light on their experiences of geographical, sectoral, interdisciplinary and social mobility. It showed that many PhD candidates are excited by the opportunities they see in their doctoral programmes, but they often experience tensions between their professional and personal desires.

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Seth Howes

Between 1983 and 1989, as the two German pop music industries continued to license one another’s properties, and Amiga continued releasing American and British records, five long-playing records were released by independent labels based in Western Europe that contained music recorded in the German Democratic Republic. They were then smuggled out of the country rather than formally licensed for release abroad. Existing outside the legal framework underlying the East German record industry, and appearing in small pressings with independent labels in West Germany and England, these five tamizdat LPs represent intriguing reports from the margins on the mutual entanglement of the two Germanies’ pop music industries. Closely examining these LPs’ genesis and formal aspects, this article explores how independent East German musicians framed their own artistic itineraries with respect to (or in opposition to) the commercial pop circuit, as they worked across borders to self-release their music.

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Brian Yothers, Gillian Dooley, Guy Galazka, Peter Weisensel, Jackie Coon, Magdalena Banaszkiewicz and David Cashman

Gary Totten, African American Travel Narratives from Abroad: Mobility and Cultural Work in the Age of Jim Crow (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2015), x + 171 pp. ISBN: 978-1-62534-1-617, $26.95 (paperback); $80 (hardcover).

Pramod K. Nayar, The Transnational in English Literature: Shakespeare to the Modern (London: Routledge, 2015), x + 315 pp. ISBN: 978-0-415-84002-6, $44.95 (paperback).

Kobi Cohen-Hattab and Noam Shoval, Tourism, Religion, and Pilgrimage in Jerusalem (London: Routledge, 2015), xiii + 206 pp. ISBN: 978-1-138-78098-9, $148 (hardcover).

Michael Hughes, Beyond Holy Russia: The Life and Times of Stephen Graham (Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, 2014), xi + 355 pp. ISBN: 978-1-78374-012-3, £18.95 (paperback).

Valene L. Smith, Stereopticon: Entry to a Life of Travel and Tourism Research (Putnam, NY: Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2015), vi + 211 pp. ISBN: 978-1-882345-67-0, $35.00 (hardcover).

John Eade and Mario Katic´, eds., Pilgrimage, Politics and Place-Making in Eastern Europe: Crossing the Borders (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2014), xiv + 187 pp. ISBN: 978-1-47241-5-929, £34.99 (paperback).

Helen Morales, Pilgrimage to Dollywood: A Country Music Road Trip through Tennessee (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014), 192 pp. ISBN: 978-0-22653-6-521, $22.50 (paperback).

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Representing the Self and the Other

American College Students in Mytilene, Greece.

Vasiliki Galani-Moutafi

Over the last several years I have been lecturing to American students visiting the north-eastern Aegean island of Lesvos, where their study abroad programme is based – in the town of Mytilene – via its association with the University of the Aegean, where I teach. Having had the opportunity to know closely several of these students and to be the recipient of their reactions to their self-experiences, it became evident that their crossing into another cultural context provided occasions for reflexivity. In line with the argument that a heightened awareness is a feature of ‘incomerness’ and of the meeting of ‘others’ (Kohn 1994: 19), the students’ relative linguistic incompetence, combined with their anxiety to conduct themselves in culturally ‘appropriate’ ways – not only for the purpose of handling practical matters, but also in order not to stand out awkwardly nor to offend those ‘others’ close to them – placed them in a liminal situation, one that prompted reflexivity (Babcock 1980). It appears that they struggled with the anxiety-ridden task of what Bourdieu calls ‘practical mastery’ (1977) in order to achieve some basic engagedness. Interestingly, the students would often label this socialisation process as ‘work’, wishing perhaps, through the metaphoric usage of the term, to emphasise the stressful and exhausting effect on the body and mind of this constant trial-and-error effort. I approach the students’ endeavour as a potential ‘journey of self-discovery’, focusing my analysis on their efforts to grapple with the problem of difference and strangeness, especially for the types of selfimages they reveal.

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Andrea Boitani

The start of the 15th Legislature witnessed a series of promising government

initiatives on economic liberalization. By the end of June 2006,

the first set of decree measures sponsored by the minister for economic

development, Pier Luigi Bersani, had been issued. They contained a

broad, if not organic, set of reforms “in favor of the citizen-consumer.”

Then on 7 July, the minister for regional and local government, Linda

Lanzillotta, presented a bill for the reform of local public services by

delegated legislation. Resuming a reform process that had begun in the

13th Legislature (1996–2001), this measure sought to allow marketoriented

policies and regulatory incentives to penetrate sectors that

for decades had been dominated by local public monopolies and characterized

by great inefficiency, at the expense of the consumer. At the

beginning of 2007, Minister Bersani presented another raft of piecemeal

reforms. At almost the same time, and after extensive work on the

details, Prime Minister Romano Prodi presented a bill (AS 1366) containing

“provisions regarding market regulation and oversight, and the

functioning of the independent authorities responsible for them.”