“I Will Make You Understand”

Using Pictures to Explore Young Boys’ Sport Experiences

in Boyhood Studies

ABSTRACT

This qualitative project explores the meanings young boys ascribe to sport experiences and how understandings and perspectives of sport differ between parent(s) and child. Thirteen five-year-old boys and their parent(s) (n = 17) took part in semi-structured interviews focusing on meanings associated with their sport and physical activity experiences. The boys undertook a drawing exercise as part of the interview to elicit their experiences as distinct from those of their parent(s). The seventeen parents were interviewed about their motivation for encouraging their sons to be active. The results indicated that the parents’ and boys’ constructions and understandings of the boys’ sport experienced differed in two important ways; the gendering of the sport experience, and the way in which the sport experience is conceptualized.

The belief that sport can contribute positively to development is widespread (Coakley 2011). Sport can provide an avenue for the development of motor and sport specific skills, and also of character through discipline, team work, responsibility, self-confidence, and self-esteem. Additionally, there are many further benefits of sport participation in relation to overall health, fitness, and well-being; sport is generally viewed as being a positive pursuit and it is commonly agreed that children should be encouraged to participate in sport (Kremer-Sadlik and Kim 2007). Children’s participation in organized sport in Australia is relatively high, with 60 percent of children aged five to fourteen years of age involved in at least one organized sport activity outside of regular school hours (Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2013). The participation rates in organized sport for boys are higher at 67 percent than for girls at 56 percent (ABS 2013).

Sport may have an important contribution to make to the development of life skills that enable individuals to cope with the demands of daily living (Holt et al. 2009; Hodge and Danish 1999). There is a common perception that children and youth can learn values and skills in addition to good sportspersonship that will hold them in good stead throughout their lives (Danish 2002). However, Fred Coalter and John Taylor have determined that “there is no consistent and predictable ‘sport-for-development effect’ in terms of personal development” (2010: x). Further, it is arguable that it is not sport that teaches life skills but that it is, rather, the (intentional) teaching of athletic skills and life skills together that provides participants with a means to transfer skills from one domain to another (Danish 2002; Danish et al. 2005). It may not be the active participation in sport that leads to the development of life skills but, rather, the exposure to a range of activities that provides opportunities to learn and adopt certain values. Similarly, for Joseph Doty (2006) while character can be developed in the sporting context, this can happen only if this is a specific goal in the planning of sports activities. Tamar Kremer-Sadlik and Jeemin Kim (2007) found that passive sports participation, such as watching matches or games on television, can provide socialization opportunities through the associated conversations about sport that take place. The conversations that parents, in particular, have with their children regarding sports watched together can lead to the development of moral values, particularly around sportspersonship. In addition, sports play (such as playing sport in the family backyard), which is outside of formal participation in sports competitions, provides parents with many opportunities to instill values in their children around their perceptions of appropriate behaviors. Kremer-Sadlik and Kim (2007) use the example of a father mediating a game between siblings, using one child’s whining to demonstrate unbecoming conduct. In addition, they argue that lessons about appropriate cheering as well as appropriate winning or losing behavior can be taught through sport.

While encouragement to play sport is seen as important for all children (Kremer-Sadlik and Kim 2007), this is viewed as particularly important for boys because of the perceived link between sport and the development of masculine characteristics evidenced by numerous studies (Connell 1995; Drummond 2011; Hickey 2008; Messner 1990; Prain 1998). There tends to be a social and cultural expectation for young boys in Western society to participate in high contact sports irrespective of enjoyment (Lines 2001) in order to develop highly regarded so-called male virtues such as bravery, courage, aggression, discipline, teamwork, determination, and commitment. Christopher Hickey and Lindsay Fitzclarence suggest that these characteristics are deeply entrenched in “masculine epistemologies of self-worth and success” (1999: 53). Boys who do not enjoy sport or who are perceived as being less skilled at sport can have their masculinity questioned; this may encourage some boys to avoid ridicule through choosing not to participate in sport at all (Drummond 2001).

Participation in sport can be constrained by social constructions of gender and gender stereotyping (Schmalz and Kerstetter 2006). Pioneering work by Eleanor Metheny (1965) highlighted the gendered nature of sports activities that is consistent with traditional perceptions of masculinity and femininity and noted that this results in sports frequently being classified as masculine or feminine despite being played by both boys/men and girls/women (Koivula 2001). Brenda Riemer and Michelle Visio (2003) came to the same conclusion. Sports that require a high degree of aggressiveness and heavy body contact, identified by Drummond (2016) as blood sports, are perceived as appropriate for boys and men while those that rely on aesthetics, such as dance and gymnastics, are perceived as being more appropriate for girls and women (Koivula 1995, 2001). Since Metheny’s (1965) original classification there has been a small shift in attitudes towards sports that could be perceived as neither masculine nor feminine. However, perceptions of gender appropriateness still have a significant influence on the determination of who plays which sport (Hardin and Greer 2009; Koivula 1995); this influences the choices parents make for their children (Fredricks and Eccles 2005).

As with sports, there are specific components of the school environment that are both gender-saturated and gender-neutral (Connell 2008; White and Hobson 2015): school may be a key environment in which notions of gender are formed. Raewyn Connell argues that “sports are one of the most gender segregated aspects of school life” (2008:143). Particularly for boys, the lessons learnt through school sport include getting up after being knocked down, using their bodies physically and forcefully, following team rules, and masking pain (Agnew and Drummond 2015; Hickey 2008). As found by Nathalie Koivula (1995), boys are more prone to stereotyping sport in terms of gender because sport is thought to validate the development of masculine characteristics. Therefore, investigating boys’ experiences of sport at the key transition stage of the beginning of school may provide insight into when and how boys experience sport and develop gender-based ideologies.

The aim of this research was to gain in-depth understanding of boys’ pathways into sport at the key transition stage of school commencement. Through eliciting the views and understandings of boys themselves, a better understanding of parents’ motivations for enrolling their sons in sport, and their choices of and reasoning behind the types of sports in which they enrolled their sons, can be gained.

Method

This was a study based on qualitative, narrative inquiry, which can be understood as “the study of experience as story” (Clandinin and Huber 2010: 436). For these scholars, narrative research has a particular focus on understanding the social conditions in which experiences take place, thus allowing researchers to view experience as phenomena. For Brett Smith and Andrew Sparkes, “meaning is created through narrative” (2009:3) and for Arthur Bochner (2002), narratives provide an appropriate framework through which meanings about experience can be explored so as to further our understanding of specific phenomena, and yet, as Smith and Sparkes (2009) point out, this approach has not been used widely in sport research.

One of the most common data collection techniques in qualitative research is a structured or semi-structured interview (Patton 2002), and narrative inquiry has relied traditionally on this method of data collection (Brustad 2008). Given the focus of narrative research on the stories of the participants, a structured format can suppress the storytelling and may serve to silence the views and understandings of some participants. Smith and Sparkes (2009) suggest that an open-ended flexible format allows the participants to take control of the telling of their own stories. In addition, Jean Clandinin and Janice Huber (2010) maintain that using visual methods rather than the interview for gathering data may best capture the multi-layered nature of experience. The use of visual research methods ensures that young children’s perspectives, often excluded from the research process because of their pre-literate status (Fane et al. 2016), are heard even in hierarchical social groupings such as parent/child pairs. Similarly, Cassandra Phoenix (2010) argues that the use of visual methods in sport research provides a powerful tool for the understanding of the multiple meanings attached to people’s experiences. Therefore, this research used a drawing exercise for boy participants during semi-structured interviews with parents and boys to gain an understanding of the sport and physical experiences of five-year-old boys in South Australia.

Participants

Thirty participants took part in this study; thirteen five-year-old boys and seventeen parents were involved in semi-structured interviews on the same day. In four interviews with boys both the mother and father participated while in the other thirteen interviews only mothers and their sons took part. The boys took part in a drawing exercise during which, by their own choice, parents remained present. In all cases there was significant opportunity for parental influence on what the children drew.

Participants were drawn from the extensive pool of families in South Australia of which approximately nine thousand have five-year-old sons who were involved in sport and or physical activities (Profile ID 2016). Prior to taking part in the drawing exercise and unstructured interview, the parents of the children had participated in an online questionnaire which was part of a broader research project on boys, resilience, and sport participation. Given that the focus of this study was on the boys, the demographic details of the parents were not recorded. The boys were involved in a variety of sports and unstructured play including swimming, soccer, football, cricket, basketball, bike riding, Lego, superhero games, and playing at the local playground. The sports in which the boys participated included both formal lessons and informal games at home in the backyard.

The parents’ perspectives were an important component of this study but, following Johanna Einarsdóttir et al. (2009) and Jennifer Fane et al. (2016) we recognized the need to position children as capable and knowledgeable research participants in research that focused on their lives. Historically, research has relied on the children’s experiences being expressed by the parent/caregiver or the teacher/professional and this can lead to findings that do not accurately represent the meanings that children give to their own experiences (Hill 2006). Previous research has indicated that the voices of children have been absent in the decision-making process in matters that are relevant and important to them, including sport (Drummond et al. 2009; Anderson and White 2017).

Procedures

The parents took part in semi-structured interviews that lasted for between thirty and seventy-five minutes and that focused on their motivation for encouraging their boys to be active either through unstructured play or through formal lessons in sport. During this time each of the boys took part in a concurrent drawing exercise and unstructured interview to explore their understandings of sport. The boys were asked simply to “draw a picture about sport, or a picture of you playing sport.” The use of limited instructions or expectations allowed children the opportunity to narrate their experiences of sport in ways that were meaningful to them, rather than in relation to questions compiled on an interview sheet.

While the pictures the boys drew were an important part of the research process they were not analyzed from a psychoanalytic perspective. Instead, the pictures provided a starting point for discussing the boy’s experience of sport and the meanings they attached to those experiences. Essentially they were designed as a means through which discussion could begin around a range of sport, health, and physical activity issues. Self-complete activities, according to Melanie Mauthner (1997), provide ideal opportunities for ways into research with young children. In line with the thinking of Margaret Brooks (2009), it also provided a greater opportunity for the children to become involved in the research process and to bring in past and present experiences. This method of collecting data aligns with Barbara Harrison’s (2002) concept of the visual as a resource, in that the pictures enabled the researchers to collect data on the child’s experiences of sport and participation in physical activity. The drawing exercise and unstructured interview lasted between five and thirty minutes of the total interview time, depending on the child’s interest in the activity. The researcher retained the original drawings and a scanned color copy was offered to the participant. The entire activity was audio recorded and then transcribed verbatim.

Flinders University’s Social and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee approved this project, and the researchers all held current police clearance certificates for working with children. Following Australian National Research Ethics Guidelines, parents were provided with an information sheet and advised of their rights to withdraw from the study. Consent from the boys, who were supervised by their parents at all times, was established via a pictorial consent form.

Analysis

In line with Virginia Braun and Victoria Clarke (2006), James Thomas and Angela Harden (2008), and Albert Mills et al. (2010) the interviews and pictures were analyzed through an inductive thematic analysis so that the interpretations were contextually grounded in the data. Following the independent coding of the data by two members of the research team, through which no conflicts were established, the codes were arranged into common themes and patterns, which were then revised and refined.

Results and Discussion

Two themes emerged through the analysis of the boys’ drawings and parent interviews; the gendering of sport experiences; and conceptualizing boys’ sport experiences. The first theme revealed that while the parents used highly gendered language and understandings to describe and interpret their sons’ sport participation, the boys did not. The second theme highlighted the clear differences in the parents’ and the boys’ understanding of sport experiences and the breadth of what this includes; this research raises important questions about when boys (and, indeed, children in general) start to develop their understanding of sport as a gendered experience.

The Gendering of Sport Experiences

While Murray Drummond’s (2016) longitudinal study with boys found that boys aged between five and six do gender the sport experience, a conflicting and important finding of our current study was that the gendered experience in sport is not a focus for five-year-old boys. This study does not suggest that boys do not have a gendered experience at the age of five but, rather, that the gendered nature of sport is not a consciously significant aspect to them. However, while boys in this study did not gender their sport experience at age five it is clear that their parents did; they had clear ideas about which sports were appropriate for boys and which for girls. One of the mothers said,

As far as I know, the girls can play cricket but the boys don’t play netball…no netball’s very much the girls.

Traditional perceptions of gender roles emerged through the parents’ responses, particularly with regard to sports injuries. Several participants indicated that it is usually the mothers rather than the fathers who are more concerned with injury risk, thus acknowledging the traditionally perceived nurturing, caring, maternal role (England et al. 2011; Eagly 2013; Lindsey 2016).

While it was argued that the Western media still portrays sports as being gendered, the parents in this study suggested that in broader society there is less emphasis on sports being appropriate for either boys or girls. Parents, primarily mothers, stated they would be happy for their boys to participate in dance, for example, if they enjoyed it, and that sports are becoming more “for everyone.” Several of the boys were currently participating in dance at school or ballet, which has traditionally been perceived as being a girls’ activity. It was these boys who were seen by their mothers to be breaking down traditional gendered stereotypes. However, the acceptance of girls’ participation in traditional boys’ sports was less evident. Research into the influence of gender on sport participation has determined that girls’ participation in sport is significantly influenced by negative stereotyping (Allender et al. 2006; Chalabaev et al. 2013). This study confirms that from the parents’ perspectives the gendered nature of sports remains an issue for girls and women. Participants agreed that it is much more difficult for girls to participate in team ball sports, in particular,

I think it’s harder for girls to get into a lot of team ball sports. I wouldn’t have said it’s not appropriate I just think it’s probably a lot harder for them to participate in them because it is dominated by boys.

Not all parents agreed that gendered stereotypes are being challenged. One parent maintained that activities that are traditionally dominated by girls would be extremely challenging for boys to participate in. She stated that just as it is more difficult for girls to participate in high contact masculine sports it is “the same with boys who show an interest in dancing or callisthenics or things like that.” One of the mothers whose sons participated in dance confirmed the negative perception of boys in activities traditionally perceived to be for girls when she suggested that “while boys are appreciated in the class not many will do it.”

Parents, in our study, maintained that the media still has a strong influence on which activities are perceived as being appropriate for boys and girls participation, and therefore in order to improve the inclusiveness of sports, the images presented through the media need to be challenged. One parent stated,

You know when you go to the shops and I don’t think they think that for a girl to have a basketball it needs to be pink. You know why can’t everyone just have an orange basketball? You know it’s slowly improving but there’s still so many places where if there’s a picture of a kid playing sport it’s going to be a boy, if there’s a picture of a kid playing with a tea set it’s going to be a girl. And so I think media and advertising have a massive, massive influence on it.

A key finding of this study was that despite the gendered perspective framing parents’ perceptions, gendered language and a gendered lens were not integrated into the boys’ own accounts of their sporting experiences. For example, there were no cases of the boys alluding to boys’ sport or girls’ sport specifically, nor were gendered understandings specifically illustrated in their pictures. This study, therefore, may counter previous research by Drummond (2016) which found that young boys begin to gender the sport experience as early as five years of age. However, this study does confirm that gender exerts an influence on sports participation through the parents’ perceptions of what sports are gender appropriate and therefore the choices they make with regard to enrolling their sons in sport.

Conceptualizing Boys’ Sport Experiences

Despite the use of the drawing activity to specifically engage the boys’ experiences of sport as (potentially) distinct from that of their parents, at numerous points in the thirteen interviews, parents attempted to redirect their son’s drawing and explanations to what they felt was important in relation to sport participation and the interview. One mother said,

Skiing. You haven’t been doing that. You haven’t done that yet. You went with daddy yesterday and he did something in the water. What was that?

Another mother attempted to help her son list the physical activities she considered the boy enjoyed. However, it was clear that the parent and child had different ideas regarding both what constitutes a sport and what were enjoyable activities. Adult perceptions of sport participation centre on sport as an organized, structured activity with rules and this was evident through the discussion with parents and even the researcher’s request for the children to draw a picture of sport. In all 13 interviews and drawing activities the parents interjected in an attempt to shape the picture their sons were drawing. The following narrative highlights the different ideas the boys had regarding what sports they liked, and how the parents attempted to influence the picture their sons drew.

Interviewer:

Would you like to play tennis when you grow up?

Child:

Yes.

Interviewer:

Yeah. Why would you like to play tennis? Would you like to play it at the Australian Open?

Child:

No.

Interviewer:

No? Why not.

Child:

Because it’s a bit boring.

Interviewer:

It’s a bit boring?

Parent:

She means the big competition where they put it on the TV. People watching you play.

Child:

Yes.

Interviewer:

You might like to go and play on TV? In front of a big crowd, lots of people?

Parent:

You get bored of the computer game after a while, so playing real life tennis [child’s name].

Interviewer:

You do play computer games? Or do you play real life tennis?

Child:

Real life tennis.

Interviewer:

Ok real life tennis, and you like that better than the computer game?

Child:

No.

Interviewer:

No, so you like the computer game better?

Child:

Yeah, because it’s fun.

How children interpreted the drawing exercise revealed that their perceptions of sport participation are not sport dominant in that their sport experiences include both broader unstructured play (such as virtual sport games) as well as structured sporting activities. This is demonstrated through emphasis in that most of the pictures depicted blue skies, sunshine, and grass (see drawings 2, 5, 7, 9, and 11 in Table 1), suggesting that the boys enjoy activities which are participated in outdoors. The pictures of what the boys thought of as sport that included trees and a lack of sports equipment indicate that children’s understanding of sport participation does not distinguish between sport and unstructured play; sport, clearly, can mean many different physical activities (see drawings 4 and 9 in Table 1). As can be seen in the narrative above, the sport experience also includes playing computer games which are sport-related and that some children may enjoy this experience more than the actual sport itself. Parents not only perceived their son’s active participation in sport as important but also believed that passive sports participation, through watching extended family members play sport, was a worthwhile experience for their sons. Kremer-Sadlik and Kim (2007) found that passive sports participation can also provide opportunities for learning which is confirmed in the current research since parents felt that sport spectating was important to mention, while the children did not because they did not enjoy this experience.

Parent:

And then what do you do when we go and watch [cousin] play soccer? You run around, don’t you? ’Cause you want to play. Normally every second Saturday, go and watch the cousins play sport.

Interviewer:

Do you like going to watch your cousins playing sport?

Child:

I don’t think so.

As with any qualitative research methods, careful attention to the wording and questions/prompts used to elicit participant’s views is essential in minimizing interviewer bias, or the propensity for interviewers themselves to influence participant responses (Qu and Dumay 2011). Despite the researcher’s purposeful use of the drawing activity to elicit children’s experiences, the repeated interjections of parents about what their son “actually does,” or “likes to do,” or what is “important” about their sport experience may have been a result of the parent wanting their child to share what they felt was relevant to the study, or what the researcher wanted. In his work on student voice, Michael Fielding (2004), identified a number of issues at play in the way children and young people’s voices are framed in institutional, community, and research settings. These include issues such as adults’ genuine belief that they know best and have the children’s best interest at heart; adult participant perspectives that interpret and frame children’s perspectives and understandings; and that even in the identification of similar ideas or concepts, their understandings and the nature of their significance invariably differ, so, even with the inclusion of the drawing activity to position the child participants as capable and knowledgeable contributors, the hierarchical relationship between children and adults actively worked against the researcher’s attempts to elicit the boy’s voices as (potentially) distinct from that of their parents. However, this interplay between parents and their boys in which parents attempted to correct, redirect, or emphasize different aspects of their son’s sporting experience also highlighted a variety of ways in which a boy’s understandings and experiences of what constitutes his own sporting experience differed widely and was distinct from that of his parents.

The drawing exercise allowed the children to direct the conversation towards the information on sport that they felt was important to share. As can be seen in the table below of what the boys drew, it is clear from the drawings that the boys’ perceptions of their participation in sport were not necessarily sport-related, and, in fact, encompassed many features commonly defined as life skills, the development of which have generally been attributed to sport.

The drawings highlighted that the boys were starting to develop knowledge and life skills pertaining to sharing equipment with their friends, and safety protocols (such as the safety fence in boy 6’s drawing and the need to wait one’s turn in athletics as in boy 3’s picture).

Table 1List of What the Five-Year-Old Boys Drew.
ChildDrawing
1.A swimming pool with them swimming with a friend. The swimming pool included a diving board.
2.Soccer field with blue skies and lots of clouds; the picture depicted the illustrator playing soccer with friends and kicking a goal.
3.An athletics field with long jump, drinks station, cones, and stationed athletic activities. This picture specifically included the lining up of participants for the various activities.
4.A lot of blue color, meant to represent a swimming pool, no people or recognizable sports equipment but lots of blue scribbles
5.The child participating in a running race where he is the only participant. This picture included blue skies and a big yellow sun to highlight that the running track was outside.
6.A race track with spectators, a long windy track and several race cars as well as a safety fence
7.A soccer pitch with long grass, two goals and two participants to depict playing soccer with his friends. Soccer was being played outside under blue skies.
8.A very multi-colored picture with lots of colored lines representing long grass. Lots of blue color at the top of the page to represent blue skies and six soccer balls but no participants.
9.A very tall tree, big yellow sun, lots of grass, one participant looking at the tree
10.One participant, two goals, lots of blue grass, blue skies
11.A golf tee, a cricket bat and ball, two friends playing together outside under the sun on the grass and a child driving a toy car
12.Two footballs, a child on the diving board of a swimming pool and a basketball ring
13.Lots of brown color, symbolizing a soccer pitch, one soccer ball and one participant. Orange, purple, and red squiggles throughout the entire picture

Further conversations with the boys allowed them to describe the memories they had depicted on paper. The sport activities depicted in the drawings ranged from individual sport achievements that were important to the boys such as scoring a hole-in-one at golf to playing team sports including soccer and cricket with family and friends. The boys revealed positive associations with sport participation through drawing pictures of happy people doing various activities. Four of the pictures (see drawings 1, 2, 7, and 11 in Table 1) included the boys’ friends as participants in the sports experience thus demonstrating the importance for these boys of having others with whom to share the experience. A common example can be seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1
Figure 1

Soccer with friends

Citation: Boyhood Studies 10, 1; 10.3167/bhs.2017.100104

The boys’ sport experiences include both broader unstructured play as well as structured sporting activities. These findings echo those of Colin MacDougall et al. who investigated the ways in which older children defined terms such as physical activity, sport, and play. They, too, found that children define these terms in very different ways from adults. For example, a major point of diversion between play and sport lies in who has power and who makes the rules; children in that study clearly articulated this difference through their statement that “children decide on rules for play and adults decide rules for sport” (2004: 382). In both studies we can see that when children have the opportunity to define how they participate in physical activity or sport, they define their participation in ways that are distinctive from adult definitions. While parents viewed sport as engagement solely in rule- and game-based competitive activities, the boys chose to include unstructured physical activity and play in their definitions, encompassing activities in which they made the rules into their definition of sport. As can be seen in Figure 2, boys associate sport with being outside and being active and not necessarily with formal organized activities with rules. For this boy in particular, sport included climbing trees, an activity far from the meanings adults attribute to the concept of sport.

Figure 2
Figure 2

Being outdoors

Citation: Boyhood Studies 10, 1; 10.3167/bhs.2017.100104

It was also clear from the drawings that the boys’ sport and physical activity experiences encompass the whole experience and not just the sporting activity itself. For example, in Figure 3, the drawing was used to explain that being involved in Little Athletics often involves waiting around for one’s turn, and that this was the appropriate time to get a drink. The boys appear to be socialized into the common practices of the sport in which they are involved.

Figure 3
Figure 3

Athletics training

Citation: Boyhood Studies 10, 1; 10.3167/bhs.2017.100104

Demonstrating that he knew the rules and common practices was important for this child in particular as is evident in his attempts to pass this knowledge on to the researcher.

Child:

The furthest that I can ever jump is where I’ve drawn me.

Interviewer:

…from there to there, that’s a long way. You must be good at jumping?

Child:

I’ll make you understand. So you see this black bit here?

Interviewer:

Yeah.

Child:

I’m not allowed to step on that bit.

Interviewer:

Okay.

Child:

Well you see the green bit at the front?

Interviewer:

Yeah.

Child:

I have, that’s the bit I have to step off.

Interviewer:

Okay.

Child:

And then I can jump.

The meanings adults give to sport participation revolve around structured activities with formal rules, whereas the boys in this study did not make clear distinctions between sports and free play, thus indicating that unstructured play is as important as organized sport participation. Nor did the boys appear to gender their sport experiences. However, it was clear that their parents did. Given the parents’ need to redirect their son’s narratives towards what they perceived as being important and their own gendering of their son’s sport experiences it is plausible that the combination of these two elements can have a significant influence on the early sport experiences of boys. This has important implications for how and when young boys begin to gender their experiences in sport and how this affects their sporting experiences.

Conclusion

This research leads to the question of when these boys will begin to change their notions of play as sport to include gendered understandings and experiences, and of what the primary influencing factors in creating this change will be. We suspect that these will be the typically identified overarching sociocultural factors such as peers, television, and the broader media. However, more research needs to be conducted so as to understand how the lessening importance of the value of unstructured play affects children’s experiences of sport participation, and whether this affects their enjoyment and continued participation. Since children’s participation in physical activity has been widely touted through public health promotion campaigns and outlined in national guidelines, it is in many ways understandable that parents would want to highlight their children’s participation in structured physical activity programming, such as sport (Lau et al. 2004). Yet, given the frequency of non-organized sport-related activities appearing in the drawings, and the boys’ narration of their experiences of sport as distinct from that of their parents, the drawings ensured that the children’s voices were not overshadowed by those of their parents. Too often children withdraw from sport because of the inherent competitive elements and then they struggle to re-engage with regular physical activity as a result. Visual participatory research assists children to describe their experiences and is, therefore, acknowledged in this article as a valid way of including children in the research process.

Given that this research focused on five-year-old boys, further research should also consider the sport participation experiences of girls as well as older children to determine when gendered notions of sport start to become an important aspect of the sport participation experience. It is clear from the parents’ perspectives that they make explicit distinctions between sport and play. They also identify the gendered differences that exist within sport together with some of the resulting negative issues that occur. While understanding is important, it is finding a solution that is proving to be problematic. As one of the mothers stated, her husband was far more willing to allow their son to engage in combative sports, where the likelihood of injury is more prevalent. Indeed, the father claimed to be quite “relaxed” about his son’s involvement given the structural parameters of sport in terms of rules, regulations, guidelines, and protective equipment. Such parameters were perceived to provide a controlled environment in which his boy could participate without too much risk. The mothers, on the other hand, tended to view this differently and were more circumspect about their boy’s participation in sports.

The expectation that boys should play sports, more so than girls, has been a long held belief. Indeed, the notion that sports, and, in particular, highly masculinized sports based around collision and impact, has been perceived as a rite of passage from boyhood to manhood. It is this heavily gendered notion of sport, which is, as this article indicates, often driven by parents that can influence the way in which a child perceives sports in general. As a consequence, these children are inclined to perpetuate this ideology amongst their peers and then, as they become older, amongst their own children. It is this reinforcement, perpetuation and, ultimately, maintenance of such socially constructed ideologies that require immediate attention. Clearly remediation needs to occur at the school level. However, it also needs to be addressed with parents since they play such a significant role in the sporting lives of their children. It is possible that boys may be missing out on participation in activities they would like to try (such as dance classes) because the parents perceive this activity to be one for girls only. This has the potential to limit the experiences of boys in sport and physical activity and push them towards participation in sports traditionally perceived as masculine. There is certainly a need to develop men’s perception of sport beyond the traditional masculinized constructions they developed when they were children. Not addressing this at the social and cultural level will continue to perpetuate the myth that all boys need to be good at sport and in particular, at masculinized contact sports. In contemporary Western society there are so many alternative ways in which healthy, happy masculinities can be developed and maintained. Clearly a variety of sports can assist in this process.

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  • ChalabaevAïnaPhilippe SarrazinPaul FontayneJulie Boiché and Corentin Clément–Guillotin. 2013. “The Influence of Sex Stereotypes and Gender Roles on Participation and Performance in Sport and Exercise: Review and Future Directions.” Psychology of Sport and Exercise 14 (2): 136144. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.10.005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ClandininD. Jean and Janice Huber. 2010. “Narrative Inquiry.” In International Encyclopedia of Education (3rd ed.) ed. Penelope PetersonEva Baker and Barry McGaw436441. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CoakleyJay. 2011. “Youth Sports: What Counts as ‘Positive Development?’Journal of Sport & Social Issues 35 (3): 306324. doi:10.1177/0193723511417311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CoalterFred and John Taylor. 2010. “Sport-for-Development Impact Study. A Research Initiative Funded by Comic Relief and UK Sport and Managed by International Development Through Sport.” Studies DoS Editor. http://www.uksport.gov.uk/docLib/MISC/FredCoaltersseminalMandEManual.pdf (accessed 31 October 2016).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ConnellRaewyn. 1995. Masculinities. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.

  • ConnellRaewyn. 2008. “Masculinity Construction and Sports in Boys’ Education: A Framework for Thinking About the Issue.” Sport Education and Society 13 (2): 131145. doi:10.1080/13573320801957053.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DanishSteven. 2002. “Teaching Life Skills through Sport.” In Paradoxes of Youth and Sport ed. Margaret Gatz and Michael Messner4960. Albany: State University of New York.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DanishStevenTanya Forneris and Ian Wallace. 2005. “Sport–Based Life Skills Programming in the Schools.” Journal of Applied School Psychology 21 (2): 4162. doi:10.1300/J370v21n02_04.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DotyJoseph. 2006. “Sports Build Character?!Journal of College and Character 7 (3): 19. doi:10.2202/1940–1639.1529.

  • DrummondMurray. 2001. “Boys’ Bodies in the Context of Sport and Physical Activity: Implications for Health.” New Zealand Physical Educator 34 (1): 5364.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DrummondMurray. 2011. “Sport, the Body and Boys’ Constructions of Masculinity.” In Youth sport in Australia: History and culture ed. Steve Georgakis and Kate Russell8596. Sydney, NSW: Sydney University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DrummondMurray. 2016. “The Voices of Boys on Sport, Health and Physical Activity: The Beginning of Life Through a Gendered Lens.” In Child’s Play Sport in Kids’ Worlds ed. Michael A. Messner and Michela Musto160170. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DrummondMurrayClaire Drummond and David Birbeck. 2009. “Listening to Children’s Voices in Qualitative Health Research.” Journal of Student Wellbeing 3 (1): 113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EaglyAlice H. 2009. Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Social–Role Interpretation. New York: Psychology Press.

  • EinarsdóttirJohannaSue Dockett and Bob Perry. 2009. “Making Meaning: Children’s Perspectives Expressed Through Drawings.” Early Child Development and Care 179 (2): 217232. doi:10.1080/03004430802666999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EnglandDawn ElizabethLara Descartes and Melissa A. Collier-Meek. 2011. “Gender Role Portrayal and the Disney Princesses.” Sex Roles 64 (7–8): 555567.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FaneJenniferColin MacDougallJessie JovanovicGerry Redmond and Lisa Gibbs. 2016. “Exploring the Use of Emoji as a Visual Research Method for Eliciting Young Children’s Voices in Childhood Research.” Early Child Development and Care. doi:10.1080/03004430.2016.1219730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FieldingMichael. 2004. “Transformative Approaches to Student Voice: Theoretical Underpinnings, Recalcitrant Realities.” British Educational Research Journal 30 (2): 295311. doi:10.1080/0141192042000195236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FredricksJennifer and Jacquelynne Eccles. 2005. “Family Socialization, Gender, and Sport Motivation and Involvement.” Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 27: 331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HardinMarie and Jennifer Greer. 2009. “The Influence of Gender-Role Socialization, Media Use and Sports Participation on Perceptions of Gender-Appropriate Sports.” Journal of Sport Behavior 32 (2): 207226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HarrisonBarbara. 2002. “Seeing Health and Illness Worlds—Using Visual Methodologies in a Sociology of Health and Illness: A Methodological Review.” Sociology of Health and Illness 24 no. 6: 856872. doi:10.1111/1467–9566.00322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HickeyChristopher and Lindsay Fitzclarence. 1999. “Educating Boys in Sport and Physical Education: Using Narrative Methods to Develop Pedagogies of Responsibility.” Sport Education and Society 4 no 1: 5162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HickeyChristopher. 2008. “Physical Education, Sport and Hyper–Masculinity in Schools.” Sport Education and Society 13 (2): 147161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HillMalcolm. 2006. “Children’s Voices on Ways of Having a Voice: Children’s and Young People’s Perspectives on Methods Used in Research and ConsultationChildhood 13 (1): 6989. doi:10.1177/0907568206059972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HodgeKen and Steven Danish. 1999. “Promoting Life Skills for Adolescent Males through Sport.” In Handbook of Counseling Boys and Adolescent Males: A Practitioner’s Guide ed. Arthur M. Horne and Mark S. Kiselica5571. Sage. doi:10.4135/9781452220390.n4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HoltNicholasKatherine TamminenLisa Tink and Danielle Black. 2009. “An Interpretive Analysis of Life Skills Associated with Sport Participation.” Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise 1 (2): 160175. doi:10.1080/19398440902909017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kremer-SadlikTamar and Jeemin Kim. 2007. “Lessons from Sports: Children’s Socialization to Values through Family Interaction during Sports Activities.” Discourse & Society 18 no 1: 3552. doi:10.1177/0957926507069456.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KoivulaNathalie. 1995. “Ratings of Gender Appropriateness of Sports Participation: Effects of Gender–Based Schematic Processing.” Sex Roles 33 nos. 7–8: 543557. doi:10.1007/BF01544679.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KoivulaNathalie. 2001. “Perceived Characteristics of Sports Categorized as Gender-Neutral, Feminine and Masculine.” Journal of Sport Behavior 24 (4): 377-393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LauPatrickKenneth Fox and Mike Cheung. 2004. “Psychosocial and Socio–Environmental Correlates of Sport Identity and Sport Participation in Secondary School-Age Children.” European Journal of Sport Science 4 (3): 121doi:10.1080/17461390400074301.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LindseyLinda L. 2016. Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. New York: Routledge.

  • LinesGill. 2001. “Villains, Fools or Heroes? Sports Stars as Role Models for Young People.” Leisure Studies 20: 285303. doi:10.1080/02614360110094661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacDougallColinWendy Schiller and Philip Darbyshire. 2004. “We Have to Live in the Future.” Early Childhood Development and Care 174 (4): 369387. doi:10.1080/0300443032000153426.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MauthnerMelanie. 1997. “Methodological Aspects of Collecting Data from Children: Lessons from Three Research Projects.” Children & Society 11: 1628. doi:10.1111/j.1099–0860.1997.tb00003.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MessnerMichael. 1990. “Men Studying Masculinity: Some Epistemological Issues in Sport Sociology.” Sociology of Sport Journal 7 (2): 136153. doi:10.1123/ssj.7.2.136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MethenyEleanor. 1965. Connotations of Movement in Sport and Dance. Dubuque, IA: W.C. Brown.

  • MillsAlbertGabrielle Durepos and Eiden Weibe eds. 2010. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • PattonMichael. 2002. Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • PhoenixCassandra. 2010. “Seeing the World of Physical Culture: The Potential of Visual Methods for Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise.” Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise 2 (2): 93108. doi:10.1080/19398441.2010.488017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PrainVaughan. 1998. “‘Playing the Man’ and Changing Masculinities.” In Where the Boys Are: Masculinity Sport and Education ed. Christopher HickeyLindsay Fitzclarence and Russell Matthews5566. Geelong: Deakin Centre for Education and Change.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Profile ID. 2016. “Community Profile: South Australia Households with Children.” http://profile.id.com.au/australia/households–with–children?WebID=130 (accessed 14 January 2016).

    • Export Citation
  • QuSandy and John Dumay. 2011. “The Qualitative Research Interview.” Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management 8 (3): 238264. doi:10.1108/11766091111162070.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RiemerBrenda and Michelle Visio. 2003. “Gender Typing of Sports: An Investigation of Metheny’s Classification.” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 74 (2): 193204. doi:10.1080/02701367.2003.10609081.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SchmalzDorothy and Deborah Kerstetter. 2006. “Girlie Girls and Manly Men: Children’s Stigma Consciousness of Gender in Sports and Physical Activities.” Journal of Leisure Research 38 (4): 536557.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SmithBrett and Andrew Sparkes. 2009. “Narrative Inquiry in Sport and Exercise Psychology: What Can It Mean and Why Might We Do It?Psychology of Sport and Exercise 10: 111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ThomasJames and Angela Harden. 2008. “Methods for the Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research in Systematic Reviews.” BMC Medical Research Methodology 8: 4555. doi:10.1186/1471–2288–8–45.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WhiteAdam and Michael Hobson. 2015. Teachers’ Stories: Physical Education Teachers’ Constructions and Experiences of Masculinity within Secondary School Physical Education. Sport Education and Society. doi:10.1080/13573322.2015.1112779

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

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Contributor Notes

Deborah Agnew is a lecturer in the School of Education at Flinders University in South Australia. Her research interests include Australian football, masculinity, sports retirement, and men’s health. She is a member of the Flinders SHAPE (Sport, Health and Physical Education) Research Centre and teaches in the Bachelor of Sport, Health and Physical Activity. E-mail: deb.agnew@flinders.edu.au

Jennifer Fane is an associate lecturer in Health and Early Childhood Education at Flinders University, Australia, and a member of the Flinders Sport, Health and Physical Education (SHAPE) Research Group. She has a diverse teaching background in early childhood settings and schools, and is a PhD candidate in the Discipline of Public Health at Flinders University. E-mail: jennifer.fane@flinders.edu.au

Murray Drummond is a Professor and Director of the Sport, Health and Physical Education (SHAPE) Research Centre at Flinders University. His research interests are based around qualitative health research with a particular interest in masculinities, sport and body image. E-mail: murray.drummond@flinders.edu.au

Philippa Henderson has a Master degree in Public Health and teaches across a wide variety of health topics in the School of Education and the School of Health Science at Flinders University in South Australia. Her research interests include sport and physical activity, as well as social justice, health equity issues, and social determinants of health. E-mail: pip.henderson@flinders.edu.au

Boyhood Studies

An Interdisciplinary Journal

  • AgnewDeborah and Murray Drummond. 2015. “Australian Football, Masculinity and the Acceptance of Pain and Injury as a Career ‘Norm.’International Journal of Sport and Society: Annual Review 6: 923.

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  • AllenderStevenGill Cowburn and Charlie Foster. 2006. “Understanding Participation in Sport and Physical Activity among Children and Adults: A Review of Qualitative Studies.” Health Education Research 21 no. 6: 826835. doi:10.1093/her/cyl063.

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  • AndersonEric and Adam White. 2017. Sport Theory and Social Problems: A Critical Introduction (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2013. “4901.0 Children’s Participation in Cultural and Leisure Activities, Australia Apr 2012.” http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Products/4901.0~Apr+2012~Main+Features~Sports+participation?OpenDocument (accessed 13 October 2016).

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  • BochnerArthur. 2002. “Perspectives on Inquiry III: The Moral of Stories.” In The Handbook of Interpersonal Communication (3rd ed.) ed. K. Knapp and J. Daley73101. London: Sage.

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  • BraunVirginia and Victoria Clarke. 2006. “Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology.” Qualitative Research in Psychology 3 (1): 77101. doi:10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.

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  • BrooksMargaret. 2009. “What Vygotsky Can Tell Us About Young Children Drawing.” International Art in Early Childhood Research Journal 1 (1): 113.

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  • BrustadRobert. 2008. “Qualitative Research Approaches.” In Advances in Sport Psychology (3rd ed.) ed. Thelma Horn314. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChalabaevAïnaPhilippe SarrazinPaul FontayneJulie Boiché and Corentin Clément–Guillotin. 2013. “The Influence of Sex Stereotypes and Gender Roles on Participation and Performance in Sport and Exercise: Review and Future Directions.” Psychology of Sport and Exercise 14 (2): 136144. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.10.005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ClandininD. Jean and Janice Huber. 2010. “Narrative Inquiry.” In International Encyclopedia of Education (3rd ed.) ed. Penelope PetersonEva Baker and Barry McGaw436441. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CoakleyJay. 2011. “Youth Sports: What Counts as ‘Positive Development?’Journal of Sport & Social Issues 35 (3): 306324. doi:10.1177/0193723511417311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CoalterFred and John Taylor. 2010. “Sport-for-Development Impact Study. A Research Initiative Funded by Comic Relief and UK Sport and Managed by International Development Through Sport.” Studies DoS Editor. http://www.uksport.gov.uk/docLib/MISC/FredCoaltersseminalMandEManual.pdf (accessed 31 October 2016).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ConnellRaewyn. 1995. Masculinities. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.

  • ConnellRaewyn. 2008. “Masculinity Construction and Sports in Boys’ Education: A Framework for Thinking About the Issue.” Sport Education and Society 13 (2): 131145. doi:10.1080/13573320801957053.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DanishSteven. 2002. “Teaching Life Skills through Sport.” In Paradoxes of Youth and Sport ed. Margaret Gatz and Michael Messner4960. Albany: State University of New York.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DanishStevenTanya Forneris and Ian Wallace. 2005. “Sport–Based Life Skills Programming in the Schools.” Journal of Applied School Psychology 21 (2): 4162. doi:10.1300/J370v21n02_04.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DotyJoseph. 2006. “Sports Build Character?!Journal of College and Character 7 (3): 19. doi:10.2202/1940–1639.1529.

  • DrummondMurray. 2001. “Boys’ Bodies in the Context of Sport and Physical Activity: Implications for Health.” New Zealand Physical Educator 34 (1): 5364.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DrummondMurray. 2011. “Sport, the Body and Boys’ Constructions of Masculinity.” In Youth sport in Australia: History and culture ed. Steve Georgakis and Kate Russell8596. Sydney, NSW: Sydney University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DrummondMurray. 2016. “The Voices of Boys on Sport, Health and Physical Activity: The Beginning of Life Through a Gendered Lens.” In Child’s Play Sport in Kids’ Worlds ed. Michael A. Messner and Michela Musto160170. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DrummondMurrayClaire Drummond and David Birbeck. 2009. “Listening to Children’s Voices in Qualitative Health Research.” Journal of Student Wellbeing 3 (1): 113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EaglyAlice H. 2009. Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Social–Role Interpretation. New York: Psychology Press.

  • EinarsdóttirJohannaSue Dockett and Bob Perry. 2009. “Making Meaning: Children’s Perspectives Expressed Through Drawings.” Early Child Development and Care 179 (2): 217232. doi:10.1080/03004430802666999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EnglandDawn ElizabethLara Descartes and Melissa A. Collier-Meek. 2011. “Gender Role Portrayal and the Disney Princesses.” Sex Roles 64 (7–8): 555567.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FaneJenniferColin MacDougallJessie JovanovicGerry Redmond and Lisa Gibbs. 2016. “Exploring the Use of Emoji as a Visual Research Method for Eliciting Young Children’s Voices in Childhood Research.” Early Child Development and Care. doi:10.1080/03004430.2016.1219730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FieldingMichael. 2004. “Transformative Approaches to Student Voice: Theoretical Underpinnings, Recalcitrant Realities.” British Educational Research Journal 30 (2): 295311. doi:10.1080/0141192042000195236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FredricksJennifer and Jacquelynne Eccles. 2005. “Family Socialization, Gender, and Sport Motivation and Involvement.” Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 27: 331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HardinMarie and Jennifer Greer. 2009. “The Influence of Gender-Role Socialization, Media Use and Sports Participation on Perceptions of Gender-Appropriate Sports.” Journal of Sport Behavior 32 (2): 207226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HarrisonBarbara. 2002. “Seeing Health and Illness Worlds—Using Visual Methodologies in a Sociology of Health and Illness: A Methodological Review.” Sociology of Health and Illness 24 no. 6: 856872. doi:10.1111/1467–9566.00322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HickeyChristopher and Lindsay Fitzclarence. 1999. “Educating Boys in Sport and Physical Education: Using Narrative Methods to Develop Pedagogies of Responsibility.” Sport Education and Society 4 no 1: 5162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HickeyChristopher. 2008. “Physical Education, Sport and Hyper–Masculinity in Schools.” Sport Education and Society 13 (2): 147161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HillMalcolm. 2006. “Children’s Voices on Ways of Having a Voice: Children’s and Young People’s Perspectives on Methods Used in Research and ConsultationChildhood 13 (1): 6989. doi:10.1177/0907568206059972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HodgeKen and Steven Danish. 1999. “Promoting Life Skills for Adolescent Males through Sport.” In Handbook of Counseling Boys and Adolescent Males: A Practitioner’s Guide ed. Arthur M. Horne and Mark S. Kiselica5571. Sage. doi:10.4135/9781452220390.n4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HoltNicholasKatherine TamminenLisa Tink and Danielle Black. 2009. “An Interpretive Analysis of Life Skills Associated with Sport Participation.” Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise 1 (2): 160175. doi:10.1080/19398440902909017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kremer-SadlikTamar and Jeemin Kim. 2007. “Lessons from Sports: Children’s Socialization to Values through Family Interaction during Sports Activities.” Discourse & Society 18 no 1: 3552. doi:10.1177/0957926507069456.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KoivulaNathalie. 1995. “Ratings of Gender Appropriateness of Sports Participation: Effects of Gender–Based Schematic Processing.” Sex Roles 33 nos. 7–8: 543557. doi:10.1007/BF01544679.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KoivulaNathalie. 2001. “Perceived Characteristics of Sports Categorized as Gender-Neutral, Feminine and Masculine.” Journal of Sport Behavior 24 (4): 377-393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LauPatrickKenneth Fox and Mike Cheung. 2004. “Psychosocial and Socio–Environmental Correlates of Sport Identity and Sport Participation in Secondary School-Age Children.” European Journal of Sport Science 4 (3): 121doi:10.1080/17461390400074301.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LindseyLinda L. 2016. Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. New York: Routledge.

  • LinesGill. 2001. “Villains, Fools or Heroes? Sports Stars as Role Models for Young People.” Leisure Studies 20: 285303. doi:10.1080/02614360110094661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacDougallColinWendy Schiller and Philip Darbyshire. 2004. “We Have to Live in the Future.” Early Childhood Development and Care 174 (4): 369387. doi:10.1080/0300443032000153426.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MauthnerMelanie. 1997. “Methodological Aspects of Collecting Data from Children: Lessons from Three Research Projects.” Children & Society 11: 1628. doi:10.1111/j.1099–0860.1997.tb00003.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MessnerMichael. 1990. “Men Studying Masculinity: Some Epistemological Issues in Sport Sociology.” Sociology of Sport Journal 7 (2): 136153. doi:10.1123/ssj.7.2.136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MethenyEleanor. 1965. Connotations of Movement in Sport and Dance. Dubuque, IA: W.C. Brown.

  • MillsAlbertGabrielle Durepos and Eiden Weibe eds. 2010. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • PattonMichael. 2002. Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • PhoenixCassandra. 2010. “Seeing the World of Physical Culture: The Potential of Visual Methods for Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise.” Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise 2 (2): 93108. doi:10.1080/19398441.2010.488017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PrainVaughan. 1998. “‘Playing the Man’ and Changing Masculinities.” In Where the Boys Are: Masculinity Sport and Education ed. Christopher HickeyLindsay Fitzclarence and Russell Matthews5566. Geelong: Deakin Centre for Education and Change.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Profile ID. 2016. “Community Profile: South Australia Households with Children.” http://profile.id.com.au/australia/households–with–children?WebID=130 (accessed 14 January 2016).

    • Export Citation
  • QuSandy and John Dumay. 2011. “The Qualitative Research Interview.” Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management 8 (3): 238264. doi:10.1108/11766091111162070.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RiemerBrenda and Michelle Visio. 2003. “Gender Typing of Sports: An Investigation of Metheny’s Classification.” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 74 (2): 193204. doi:10.1080/02701367.2003.10609081.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SchmalzDorothy and Deborah Kerstetter. 2006. “Girlie Girls and Manly Men: Children’s Stigma Consciousness of Gender in Sports and Physical Activities.” Journal of Leisure Research 38 (4): 536557.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SmithBrett and Andrew Sparkes. 2009. “Narrative Inquiry in Sport and Exercise Psychology: What Can It Mean and Why Might We Do It?Psychology of Sport and Exercise 10: 111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ThomasJames and Angela Harden. 2008. “Methods for the Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research in Systematic Reviews.” BMC Medical Research Methodology 8: 4555. doi:10.1186/1471–2288–8–45.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WhiteAdam and Michael Hobson. 2015. Teachers’ Stories: Physical Education Teachers’ Constructions and Experiences of Masculinity within Secondary School Physical Education. Sport Education and Society. doi:10.1080/13573322.2015.1112779

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation