The Girlhood Project

Pivoting our Model with Girls During COVID-19

in Girlhood Studies
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  • 1 Lesley University, and The Girlhood Project, USA cweiner@lesley.edu
  • 2 Lesley University, and The Girlhood Project, USA kvandema@lesley.edu
  • 3 Lesley University, and The Girlhood Project, USA sdoyle3@lesley.edu
  • 4 Lesley University, and The Girlhood Project, USA jmarti42@lesley.edu
  • 5 Lesley University, and The Girlhood Project, USA swalklet@lesley.edu
  • 6 Lesley University, and The Girlhood Project, USA arutstei@lesley.edu

Abstract

The Girlhood Project (TGP) is a community based, service-learning/research program that is part of the undergraduate course at Lesley University called “Girlhood, Identity and Girl Culture.” TGP works with community partners to bring middle and high school girls to Lesley's campus for nine weeks as part of intergenerational girls’ groups that are co-facilitated by Lesley students (also referred to as TGP students). TGP fosters the development of feminist leadership, critical consciousness, voice, and community action, and activism in all participants. In this article, we describe how we adapted TGP's model to a virtual and synchronous platform for students during COVID-19 and supported their learning competencies. We reflect critically on this experience by centering the voices and perspectives of girls, students, and professors.

Introducing The Girlhood Project Model: Pre-COVID-19

TGP's Emerging Girlhood Scholar model uses disruptive feminist pedagogy and critical media literacy as advocated by Amy Rutstein-Riley et al. (2013) to center girls’ experiences and construct new knowledge about their lives. (See, too, Amy Rutstein-Riley and Ann Ziergiebel 2018, 2020). TGP participants (Lesley students and girls) meet in intimate groups that are co-facilitated by Lesley students where they deconstruct and reconstruct dominant messages about girlhood and mobilize around issues that affect their lives. Participants use discussion and arts/media-based activities, including body mapping, affinity groups, and identity maps to examine how social and cultural constructions of girlhood—sexuality/ies, race, class, ethnicity, education, the media, and current events—have an impact on their lives. A critical part of the TGP experience is made up of the relationships that develop between TGP students and the girls, and the issues that are raised during their time together. Following Katie Clonan-Roy et al. (2016) and Rutstein-Riley and Ziergiebel (2018, 2020), TGP fosters the development of feminist leadership, voice, critical consciousness, and community action and activism in all participants.

Founded by Rutstein-Riley in 2008, TGP, part of a larger initiative to support feminist leadership and intersectional identity development in girls and young women, has worked with more than 650 adolescent girls and Lesley students to facilitate personal growth and change in their lives.

TGP Participants

Lesley University is a predominantly white institution. While the majority of TGP students are white and middle-class, and between the ages of 19 and 23, students of color, gender non-conforming students, and adult learners are also centered in our classroom. TGP students approach the course from various disciplines, including education, sociology, counseling, and women's studies. These perspectives inform how they make meaning of the content and build relationships with the girls. The girls with whom we work range in age from 10 to 18. They come from schools and community-based programs that are geographically close to our university. The background of TGP girls differs from that of many TGP students; more than half are Black or Brown, and many are recent immigrants or first generation Americans whose countries of origin include Brazil, El Salvador, Eritrea, Pakistan, Haiti, and Dominican Republic, among others. Many of the girls with whom we work live at or below the federal poverty line. We strive to learn from one another's experience and to create an environment that is built on mutuality and understanding.

TGP's Pedagogical Approach

Our approach is grounded in the understanding that girls are experts in their own lives. We resist cultural narratives that position girlhood as a universal experience or that label girls as being an at-risk population. We believe that knowledge is a social construct, and that youth and young adults can serve as powerful allies to share the collective wisdom they hold.

In the “Girlhood, Identity, and Girl Culture” course, students are provided with a theoretical introduction to the field of girls’ studies that is informed by Relational Cultural Theory, Critical Race Theory, Positive Youth Development, feminist pedagogy and critical media literacy (Delgado and Stefancic 2001; Jordan 2018; Lerner et al. 2005; Mcarthur 2016). We build on these theoretical foundations with experiential programming that engages intersectional identity development and multimodal expression as tools for socio-cultural critique. Students engage in feminist praxis, equipped with the TGP toolkit of best practices to co-facilitate their girls’ groups.

Relationship-building and feminist group process minimize power differences between faculty, students, and participants. This enables professors to work with students in a mentoring capacity as they co-construct group activities with girls (Rutstein-Riley et al. 2013; Rutstein-Riley and Ziergiebel 2018, 2020). While power remains visible in the context of TGP, we rely on feminist process to acknowledge and dismantle it.

Emerging Girlhood Scholar Model

All TGP students are positioned as Emerging Girlhood Scholars and participant researchers who contribute to the evolving scholarship of the project. After each girls’ group, students complete a Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ), adapted from Stephen Brookfield (1995), through which they record their impressions. We also conduct focus groups and examine artwork and other media produced by TGP girls and students. This contributes to an ever-evolving body of work from which we assess and evaluate the impact of the program.

The Girlhood Project and COVID-19

COVID-19 struck in the middle of the spring 2020 semester, scattering TGP participants overnight, halting our girls’ groups entirely, and demanding an immediate redesign of the course. The TGP leadership team was faced with two essential questions:

How do we adapt our learning environment in a way that maintains essential elements of our model and delivers key competencies to our participants?

How do we ensure that we are able to adapt to meet girls where they are and address their needs in the COVID-19 crisis?

A Dialogical Approach to Making Meaning of TGP during COVID-19

This article is a collaborative project undertaken by TGP students and instructors. We use a dialogical approach to discuss how we transformed the TGP model into a virtual and synchronous learning environment during COVID-19, how our personal, academic and political lives became enmeshed through this new learning platform, and how our understandings of power shifted as a result of this experience. We conclude by reflecting on the implications of this new pedagogical model for serving girls now, and in the future.

This method is consistent with TGP's philosophy of co-construction in that, following Mikhail Bakhtin (1986), Jan DeFehr (2017), and Barbara Merrill (2005), it emphasizes relationship, critical inquiry, and shared power and creates the conditions for the generation of new knowledge about girls’ and women's lives. Moreover, it centers each person's voice, and allows for multiple meanings to emerge, as Barbara Merrill (2005) suggests. For the purposes of the article, the authors posed a series of questions to one another that we answered in online journals. This enabled us to understand each person's experience from her perspective. We responded to one another with comments or questions like, for example, “Could you say more about how you felt? Why did you feel this way? We also offered affirmations such as, “I also felt that way.” Our responses initiated several lengthy conversations that evolved throughout the writing process. This helped us to make meaning of our different, yet shared experience of participating in TGP during COVID-19.

We recognize that COVID-19 adversely and disproportionately affects girls, particularly those who “live at multiple margins and intersections” (Fine et al. 2018: 611) of race, class, and sexual identity. While girls face challenges at every level of society—familial, communal, educational, institutional, religious, and political—these have become amplified during COVID-19. As practitioners, we must resist the tendency to default to dominant norms, and assume we know best how to serve the needs of girls. Yet, we did know that some of these girls and young women were isolated and disconnected (or differently connected) to the social, emotional, economic, and academic resources of their school communities, and struggling to make sense of their position in the context of a global pandemic.

In March 2020, when the COVID-19 crisis became acknowledged in the United States, our university, like many others, transitioned to online learning. While this decision was necessary, it challenged the make-up and delivery of TGP. In the sudden absence of middle and high school-aged girls, we were reminded that TGP students were still in the midst of their own late girlhood, and that they were experiencing the crisis in unique ways that required support. With this in mind, the TGP leadership team—professors, teaching assistants and research assistants—decided to move the TGP groups online, with students facilitating TGP groups for one another. The groups met during the scheduled class time each week, with students and instructors participating through live video conferencing technology. Students adapted their plans and activities from earlier in the semester for online use. Instructors also used this time to facilitate weekly check-ins and to provide context and theory to frame the course. Outside of this scheduled class time, students discussed their weekly readings through an online discussion board.

Transforming TGP Online: Pedagogical Considerations

COVID-19 affected our lives as individuals, academics, and community members. Here, TGP students and instructors share how elements of the TGP model served us through the crisis and discuss future implications for our work.

The Personal Is Academic: Making Space for Identity and Context in our Virtual Classroom

The first questions focus on how COVID-19 affected our lives as individuals and as TGP participants:

What was the impact of COVID-19 on your personal and academic circumstances?

How did that affect the way you brought your whole self, as it were, into the [virtual] classroom?

Walklet, a TGP student, wrote,

When we were presented with an exclusively online semester in mid-March, it forced us to bring girlhood—all inclusive—into our most personal and most private spaces. Before COVID, we were occupying a ‘container’ in which girls could choose to disclose the more invisible identities or experiences that pervade their personal lives. In TGP online, the public and private were occurring simultaneously in our own homes or bedrooms. We were no longer afforded the privilege of censoring or omitting characteristics of our most personal and private lives [since] they were virtually on display.

Martinez, another TGP student, noted,

I was never able to bring my whole self to the classroom. Although I could never pre-COVID-19 either, higher academia does not include the identities I hold. At a predominantly white university, I never feel welcome to bring in my full self. The pandemic brought a lot of struggle … I was in an unsettling home and my roles of daughter, sister, student, leader, activist, friend, mentor, and more were all forced together under one space. For our first few sessions, I was struggling to find a space to focus on my class. My screen was college prepared and academically ready although my surrounding area was shouting girls, cawing birds, and my mother singing along to Arelys Henao while she cooked. I needed space to focus on my studies, though doing so took space away [from my family].

Doyle, a TGP research fellow, explained,

My family's world turned upside-down … Three kids suddenly home, distance-learning. I was their teacher. My research was stalled … losing access to the high school girls’ group, I felt powerless. Rather than indulge that powerless feeling, my family and I decided to plow forward and do what we could to control our own circumstances.

Weiner, a TGP instructor recalled,

When I first heard that we needed to ‘pivot’ the course, I had no idea how we would be able to maintain the integrity of TGP without girls. In my personal life, I felt a bit of relief that I was being given permission to slow down, because I always feel as though I'm falling short as a mom, a student, and a professor. While I initially thought that being stuck inside would result in a period of incredible productivity, my mind was in a fog and my kids were having a hard time. When it came to TGP, I brought my messy and disjointed self, but I also brought a readiness to confront and challenge the barriers that allowed the virus to spread as it did.

Van Demark, a TGP instructor noted,

Alongside TGP, I work in HR and management in a business that was deemed ‘essential,’ but chose to cut its workforce by 70 percent. I was on the front lines of a business in crisis and the personal crises of hundreds of young people navigating unemployment and enormous uncertainty. I contracted the virus at work. I needed both intellectual and emotional support to navigate these challenges, and I received it in our classroom. [Given] the intensity in my own life, my bandwidth for structuring and leading our course was lowered; I feared that it would cause chaos but in actuality it created space for feminist leadership and co-construction to flourish in ways I otherwise may have impeded.

In a course and project that are based on relationships and personal experience, we knew that we had a unique opportunity to examine the impact of COVID-19 on the girls and women with whom we work. Rutstein et al. note that, “College students are still very much engaged in the process of their own identity formation as emerging adult women, actively doing their own gender, sexuality/ies and racial identity work” (2013: 278). Several TGP students told us how they were working in unsafe conditions because of economic need and/or struggling with separation from family members, some of whom had fallen ill. Together, we analyzed how systems of power—patriarchy, capitalism, racism, sexism, and others—had created and reproduced many of the social inequities they were experiencing and what we could do to challenge them. As Michelle Fine notes,

It is provocative to consider how our theoretical framings, designs, methods, lines of analysis, and even our research products change when we craft research projects at the edge, with diverse collectives from community and university, taking seriously lives and structures, interrogating dominant lies and lives/movements at the rim. (2016: 357)

TGP Online: Structure and Content

We centered students’ voices by adapting tools from the TGP toolkit to our virtual space. For example, we began each class with a creative check-in. On one occasion, we asked participants to post an emoji to describe how they were feeling. The discussion was remarkably deep and expressive! Those who expressed struggle received validation from others in the form of hearts, rainbows, and empathetic messages. In a CIQ collected after class, one student said, “I found it most helpful when we did the emoji check in. I got to see that a lot of people felt the same way as me about online school. It's comforting to know that I'm not alone.” Findings by Hanna Retallack, Jessica Ringrose, and Emilie Lawrence (2016) show that online spaces offer girls an important and uninhibited opportunity to show support and empathy towards one another.

During COVID-19, our check-ins often became hour-long discussions in which students shared feelings of loneliness, fear, and frustration. While these sessions were unplanned, they became important moments to meet students where they were and connect their lived experiences to the content of the course. TGP students Martinez and Walklet demonstrate this in their dialogical journals.

How did COVID-19 influence our relationships with one another and the community dynamic of our class?

Martinez notes,

During the chaos it seemed we were all very much aware of the different circumstances and this brought a different level of care and compassion to follow it. Despite our own adversities, the group ebbed and flowed to what kind of attention was needed that day. Perhaps we celebrate or have a discussion about government response. It was always different and meaningful. The hierarchy [within the course] had dissolved, which is a win [from] my perspective. Those power structures were still there, but the allyship grew strong … Through our activities we attempted to center girls’ voices by bringing out our own. This would have never occurred in the classroom … well not to this personal extent. These windows on our screens connected our personal to the academic and brought out the girlhood in us to share with the rest of The Girlhood Project.

Walklet said,

Personally, there would be days where I was completely disheveled or on the verge of tears, and the honest testimonies of pain and struggle, both from my fellow students and my professors, would make me feel less alone, or less ashamed of the pain I was experiencing individually and collectively. We would disclose the impact COVID had on our mental health, reiterate the importance of support (psychological and otherwise), and even display ourselves unshowered, in pajamas, in bed, or in crisis. We were not only showing up physically, we were also showing up emotionally.

Our new online classroom space changed how we saw each other, what we shared with each other, and how we related to each other.

Another popular TGP tool is identity mapping. This includes activities that encourage participants to examine the impact of race, gender, class, etc. on their lives as Kimberlé Crenshaw (1991) suggests. In the virtual environment, we found many students theorizing, creating, and sharing aspects of themselves through artifacts from their bedrooms and basements. This invoked memories of Angela McRobbie's and Jenny Garber's (1976) “bedroom culture” (213). For decades, girls have retreated to their bedrooms and other intimate spaces to engage in self-exploration and identity development. In recent years, this theory has been reinterpreted to suggest that in the presencing of online cultures, the personal and private meld together to enable girls to cultivate and share their identities with others (Kearney 2018; Lincoln 2016). In this way, the personal became public and allowed us to build connections beyond the classroom. Walklet and Doyle reflect on this experience.

Walklet said,

One facilitator wore a stunning beaded wig that took her hours to make and represented her connection to queer culture and Drag. Another showed a massive collage of photos on her bedroom wall, all capturing womanhood, friendship, and social advocacy. Another had her senior capstone art project on display—an art project investigating the romanticization of Black suffering. Accessing these private spaces required us to truly ‘bring our whole selves’ into the course, and consequently afforded us the ability to recognize and celebrate the inventiveness of both professors and facilitators in the midst of an unprecedented crisis. We were able to celebrate in a time when celebration was necessary for survival.

Doyle explained,

Being in an online environment opened us all to a new intimacy: our screens became windows into our personal lives that normally never intersect in a classroom setting.

Martinez described a project that she was inspired to create for the course.

The online experience was not simply online, and in fact carried a lot of our own physical world. We utilized a lot of our own physical spaces to contribute to our virtual reality. I was inspired for an online girls’ group activity [in which] girls could be challenged to create a screenshot collage of things that represent their likes, hopes, and identity. This could be on a laptop or on our phones. I created my own based on trips I've had in Cuba, Spain, and Morocco from images that are all on my Instagram using a free app to collage.

Figure 1:
Figure 1:

Martinez's digital collage

Citation: Girlhood Studies 13, 3; 10.3167/ghs.2020.130304

These reflections show how members of our community were able to celebrate and share their girl-centered identities, despite the limits imposed by our screens and the social distance between us. We draw heavily and with gratitude from the work of Ruth Nicole Brown, who writes about the importance of keeping celebration relevant in her work with Black girls.

The goal is to create a space that facilitates collective action, and then to organize that space so the girl with so much to say can say it, the girl with nothing to say can dance it, and the girl who wants to say it but cannot write, will learn. (2009: 22)

Disrupting and Redistributing Power in the Classroom

As a feminist-oriented, girl-centered project that is committed to disrupting hegemonic systems of power, we cannot ignore these, particularly since we function within the context of a university environment. These factors can influence the aspects of ourselves that we are willing or able to reveal in class. Martinez notes that the virtual TGP format “diminished” many of the hierarchies that typically exist in the classroom. We looked to the scholarship of Dominique Hill, who has written extensively on the practice of embodied vulnerability to assist us in this practice. Hill explains that “the practice of embodied vulnerability serves as intervention to assumptions that progress, grow, and cultivate a life of their own in the classroom” (2017: 6). Her work provides important pedagogical wisdom for deepening the student/teacher relationship, celebrating marginalized identities, and cultivating new knowledge. During the crisis, our understanding of her work shifted dramatically as we navigated the seemingly disembodied medium of virtual learning.

Walklet wrote,

I was convinced before attending our first online class that a virtual class session would completely undo the sense of community we had strongly established in TGP thus far. However, I was completely wrong. COVID-19 was truly a catalyst for us to be our most present selves. We were given an opportunity to put our energy towards something that still demanded our attention—what is girlhood looking like now? How can we reinvent the ways in which we engage with/work with/learn from girls in a virtual space? We could talk candidly about our fears and anxieties, as well as our successes and our celebrations, however small they felt.

We believe that our disrupted space and our newly defined roles provided a relational environment in which we could feel seen, integrate our lived experiences into our expressions of identity, and reclaim our vulnerability as an extension of our own power. We challenged our model to a new extent by re-positioning instructors as participants, students as facilitators, and all participants as developers of content in the face of COVID-19.

Leveraging Girl-centered Technology and Girl-generated Content in the Classroom

During the weekly girls’ groups, teams of students used girl-centered technology—content they created and consumed in line with Mary Kearney's (2018) suggestions to conduct activities that focused on themes they deemed relevant to girls’ lives, including mental/emotional health, body image, relationships, consent, self-defense, and girl-lead activism. In addition to compelling content, the virtual groups provided us with an important—and long overdue—opportunity to integrate technology into TGP. While we recognize that technology serves as an important medium through which girls challenge authority, discover feminism, explore their identity, and exercise voice (Keller 2016; Kim and Ringrose 2018), we have long struggled with when and how to integrate technology into TGP.

Figure 2:
Figure 2:

Digital Collage by Martinez; TGP Online

Citation: Girlhood Studies 13, 3; 10.3167/ghs.2020.130304

In addition to bringing highly relevant technology into their groups, students also used it to express and document their experiences during COVID-19. Martinez stepped into her role as an Emerging Girlhood Scholar when she realized that the teaching team had failed to develop strategies to document the virtual experience. She took it upon herself and emailed the teaching team:

I took an anthropology class during my freshman year and learned about artifacts from cultures which deeply reflect the state of our lives. Until we talked about it in TGP today, I was shocked that I could forget something so crucial in our own girlhoods. This explains why I [have] kept my journals and schoolwork since I was a young girl. With that being said, I thought about cyber girlhoods; I thought about TGP. There are physical artifacts which are preserved at the TGP office, but what about the artifacts from online spaces? As class was happening my mind kept racing about this and I worried. How have we been documenting our own artifacts during this pandemic? This is critical history in TGP because this has literally never happened before! So, I did the same thing and gathered some relics from today's class into a digital collage.

Despite losing middle school and high school TGP participants to COVID-19, we invited girls into our online space whenever we could. Daughters, sisters, and family friends led us in virtual dance, discussion, and consciousness raising. We used these opportunities to celebrate girls, learn from girls, and explore our interconnected identities. These interactions provided us with an important window into girls’ lived experiences during COVID-19. One girl-guest spoke openly about her work as an activist. Martinez invited her younger sister to teach a popular TikTok dance she learned while in quarantine. She reflects critically on her own praxis as she examines the intergenerational girlhoods in her home environment.

Girlhood, womanhood, sisterhood, our matriarchy was right outside my bedroom door. Silenced, for my education. Silenced so that I could learn about girlhood culture with my class. I then realized the elitism I was unintentionally exhibiting. I began to find ways to involve my younger sisters because I was truly learning from them … I began to acknowledge my mother's girlhood. Her girlhood lives through me and so does her sisterhood, her womanhood and one day, her motherhood. This is intergenerational girlhood and was accomplished because the private became public and I opened my bedroom door. So, when we were worrying about not having girl groups and not being able to work one on one with them, we were ignoring the girlhoods that exist all around us.

This example illustrates how we worked with students to center and celebrate the girlhoods around them. While we were restricted to screens, we were able to widen the lens to political, personal, and social events around us, build community, and provide students with a deep and meaningful feminist, girl-centered experience.

Limitations

As we reflect on the experience of piloting TGP online, we must also acknowledge its limitations. While online learning has the potential to reach and connect individuals across nations and age-groups, it also underscores inequities that exist across the digital divide (Bozkurt et al. 2020). We experienced this to a certain extent in our virtual classroom. Students’ participation was impeded by poor internet connection, shared devices, lack of proper audio/video equipment, lack of privacy, and/or limited experience with online learning. In addition, some students were unable or chose not to be on camera, which made it difficult to gauge their experience. As a result, access was not equal for all students.

As feminist practitioners who are committed to working with all girls to challenge and dismantle systems of power, we must first consider how to confront these barriers without perpetuating them. We hope to document and build upon our approach to promote the inclusion of all girls, regardless of their economic circumstances, geographic location, and/or social context. While our experience suggests that the TGP model is highly flexible and can be adapted for use with or without technology, with social distancing, and in non-academic contexts, we must acknowledge that our experience administering the program is limited to a university environment in the Global North. In order to make TGP accessible more widely and avoid reifying the very systems we seek to change it is necessary for us to pilot our model beyond the context of the classroom.

Conclusion: Pedagogical Considerations for Virtual Girl-Centered Work

TGP holds girls as experts in their own experience. Historically, we have worked to support girls by developing feminist leadership, critical consciousness, voice, community action and activism through in-person experiential girls’ groups. COVID-19 challenged us to rethink our delivery and model. During a time when we, as a society, were told to retreat and protect our own, we quickly learned that the TGP model and pedagogical approach are uniquely equipped to serve our learning community virtually —and perhaps girls beyond it. The efficacy of our virtual model, while limited, should not be underestimated. We must now consider how to build upon these insights as we continue our work with girls and students. Through sharing our reflections, we are able to share key insights with the girl-serving community at large.

The Personal is Academic

Youth develop in relationship and in specific socio-cultural contexts (Clonan-Roy et al. 2016; Lerner et al. 2005). Girl-serving spaces should embrace intersectional identities, foster relationships through shared vulnerability, and invite youth to contextualize themselves during current events.

Disrupting and Redistributing Power in the Classroom

Girls need to feel heard, seen and supported. Girls and their adult allies can benefit from shifting power dynamics and generational hierarchies in classroom spaces and other learning environments.

Leveraging Girl-centered Technology and Girl-generated Content in the Classroom

While access to technology is not universal, girls are typically more at ease with it than many of the adults who serve them. Girls should be given space to lead, generate content, and contribute to programs that intend to serve them.

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  • Rutstein-Riley, Amy, and Ann M. Ziergiebel. 2020. “The Work of Girlhood: An Invitation to Examine Self and Identity.” In Identity and Lifelong Learning in Higher Education, ed. Jo Ann Gamel, Sue Motulsky, and Amy Rutstein-Riley, 2338. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.

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Contributor Notes

Cheryl Weiner (ORCID: 0000-0003-2032-681X) is a PhD candidate at Lesley University and a TGP instructor. Email: cweiner@lesley.edu

Kathryn Van Demark (ORCID: 0000-0002-7919-0534) is a TGP instructor, pursuing a graduate degree in applied psychology. Email: kvandema@lesley.edu

Sarah Doyle (ORCID: 0000-0003-2040-2608) is a PhD candidate at Lesley University and a TGP researcher. Email: sdoyle3@lesley.edu

Jocelyn Martinez (ORCID: 0000-0002-4324-5978) is an Emerging TGP Scholar and graduate of Lesley University. Email: Jmarti42@lesley.edu

Fia Walklet (ORCID: 0000-0001-8588-368X) is an Emerging TGP Scholar and student at Lesley University. Email: swalklet@lesley.edu

Amy Rutstein-Riley (ORCID: 0000-0002-7859-801X) is Interim Dean of Lesley University's Graduate School of Education and founder of The Girlhood Project. Email: arutstei@lesley.edu

Girlhood Studies

An Interdisciplinary Journal

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  • Kim, Crystal, and Jessica Ringrose. 2018. “‘Stumbling Upon Feminism’: Teenage Girls’ Forays into Digital and School-Based Feminisms.” Girlhood Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 11 (2): 4662. https://doi:10.3167/ghs.2018.110205.

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  • Merrill, Barbara. 2005. “Dialogical Feminism: Other Women and the Challenge of Adult Education.” International Journal of Lifelong Education 24 (1): 4152. https://doi.org/10.1080/026037042000317338

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  • Retallack, Hanna, Jessica Ringrose, and Emilie Lawrence. 2016. ‘“Fuck Your Body Image’: Teen Girls’ Twitter and Instagram Feminism in and Around School.” In Learning Bodies: The Body in Youth and Childhood Studies, vol. 2, ed. Julia Coffey, Shelley Budgeon and Helen Cahill, 85103. Singapore: Springer.

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  • Rutstein-Riley, Amy, Jenn Walker, Alice Diamond, Bonnie Bryant, and Marie LaFlamme. 2013. “We're All Straight Here”: Using Girls’ Groups and Critical Media Literacy to Explore Identity with Middle School Girls. In Girls’ Sexualities and the Media, ed. Kate Harper, Yasmina Katsulis, Vera Lopez, and Georganne Scheiner Gillis, 263283. New York: Peter Lang.

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  • Rutstein-Riley, Amy, and Ann M. Ziergiebel. 2018. “Feminist Relational Practice: Emerging Scholars Discover the Disorienting Dilemma of Leadership and Transformation.” Feminist Teacher 28 (2/3): 158176.

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  • Rutstein-Riley, Amy, and Ann M. Ziergiebel. 2020. “The Work of Girlhood: An Invitation to Examine Self and Identity.” In Identity and Lifelong Learning in Higher Education, ed. Jo Ann Gamel, Sue Motulsky, and Amy Rutstein-Riley, 2338. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.

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    • Export Citation

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