Girls and Young Women Negotiate Wellbeing during COVID-19 in Quebec

in Girlhood Studies
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  • 1 Myriagone, University of Montreal, Canada jennifer.thompson@umontreal.ca
  • 2 Myriagone, University of Montreal, Canada sarah.fraser.1@umontreal.ca
  • 3 School of Psychoeducation, University of Montreal, Canada rocio.macabena.perez@umontreal.ca
  • 4 School of Psychoeducation, University of Montreal, Canada charlotte.paquette@umontreal.ca
  • 5 Myriagone and School of Public Health, University of Montreal, Canada katherin.frohlich@umontreal.ca

Abstract

In this article, we feature photographs and cellphilms produced by 13 girls and young women (aged 13 to 19) from urban, rural, and Indigenous areas of Quebec, Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic. Framed within girls’ studies, we present girls’ and young women's creations and co-analysis about wellbeing during a period of lockdown. We explore how girls and young women restructured their routines at home as well as negotiated motivation and the pressure to be productive. We note that girls had more time than usual for creative activities and self-discovery and that they engaged with the politics of the pandemic and advocated for collective forms of wellbeing. Importantly, girls reported that participating in this research improved their wellbeing during this lockdown.

Introduction

Sixteen-year-old EB1 begins her cellphilm, a short video that she made on her mobile device, about her experiences during the first months of COVID-19, with the words, “It's hard to stay motivated at times like these.” EB's words accompany footage of raindrops falling in puddles outdoors. The mood is somber, as EB says, “It's a bit boring and sad right now.” Yet, over the course of her 60-second production, EB brings audiences from grey spring rain to the moment when trees blossom and the sun comes out. She picks up her guitar and her sketchbook, she plays cards, and makes cupcakes. She lies in the grass looking up at the sky. EB depicts the transformation in how she coped with difficult times. Her message is about hope during the crisis. She said, “During times like these … we don't always feel happy, so it is important to stay positive to get through it, despite everything that is happening.”

EB made her cellphilm in May 2020 in Montreal, Quebec, during the initial lockdown phase of the pandemic when strict public health measures to prevent and delay the spread of the virus had been in place for two months. The implementation of physical distancing—keeping one's distance2 from other people and avoiding crowded places and gatherings (World Health Organisation 2020)—included the closure of schools and recommendations to self-isolate by staying at home. The province of Quebec was badly affected during the first wave of the pandemic with over 57,000 cases of infection, more than the rest of Canada combined (Government of Canada 2020). The situation in the City of Montreal was acute, with over 25 percent of the total cases and 63 percent of deaths in Canada (Government of Quebec 2020). Speaking from Canada's epicenter, EB titled her cellphilm Ça va bien aller (It'll be OK), the slogan often accompanying drawings of rainbows displayed in the windows of Quebec homes and businesses. For many, ça va bien aller symbolized hope during lockdown, as much for the young people making and displaying rainbows as for neighbors passing by. However, reflecting critically on the rainbows, Utsa Mukherjee (2020) notes the need to interrogate romanticized positivity narratives. While important cultural texts and ways in which young people are participating in pandemic discourses, the rainbow narratives also risk glossing over inequities and the specific ways in which different subjectivities and different aspects of wellbeing are produced and historically situated.

The Girl in the Pandemic

In this article, we focus on the experiences of girls and young women in Quebec during the COVID-19 pandemic as portrayed in girl-produced media texts, like EB's cellphilm. Drawing on a recent special issue of Girlhood Studies, we recast Ann Smith's (2019), The Girl in the Text, that explores how girls are represented in various types of texts, to propose The Girl in the Pandemic as a touchstone for our analysis. Engaging with the distinct experiences of girls, which risk being overlooked in youth, childhood, and women's studies, we take up how girls’ participatory media production both positions girls as what Mary Celeste Kearney (2006) describes as cultural producers and involves girls meaningfully in research (Mitchell and Reid-Walsh 2009). At the height of this lockdown, it was difficult to find research about the pandemic featuring girls’ voices. While several surveys as well as the producers of a photograph essay from Italy (The Guardian 2020) have involved youth, research that has actively engaged girls’ analyses of their experiences and the pandemic situation has been limited. This gap skews how wellbeing during the pandemic is being understood and misses how to best support young women's wellbeing within and beyond pandemic times. As social life changes drastically, this moment provides an opportunity to rethink how social structures and norms affect the wellbeing of girls and young women.

We focus in particular on socio-emotional wellbeing and on girls’ agency in addressing wellness. Following Janet Holland (2007), we consider emotion as an important way of knowing and central to wellbeing. As Sarah Atkinson (2013) notes, dominant approaches conceptualize wellbeing as a set of components or determinants that individualize the responsibility for wellness. She proposes more collective, situated, and relational views of wellbeing as a process or “an effect, dependent on the mobilisation of resources from everyday encounters with complex assemblages of people, things, and places” (137). Dynamic and emergent, wellbeing is subject to change in relation to physical, social, and political environments. Wellbeing can include responding and contributing to community—having a role in social action (Evans and Prilleltensky 2007). We explore what girls and young women think and feel about the pandemic, how their environments and relationships influence their wellbeing, and the actions that girls and young women take to negotiate individual and collective wellbeing.

Context: A Participatory Visual Pandemic Study with Young People in Quebec

In this article, we discuss the contributions of 13 girls and young women who participated in a larger pilot study about COVID-19 called “Picturing Life during the Pandemic.” Given the participation of both girls and boys in the pilot, we first describe how we adapted participatory visual methodologies to work with teenage and young adult participants during the pandemic, and then focus exclusively in the findings on the perspectives of girls and young women. The pilot was conducted as part of Myriagone, the McConnell-University of Montreal Chair in Youth Knowledge Mobilization that aims to create, share, and mobilize knowledge with, by, and for youth. The pilot involved 20 young people from across Quebec to explore how they are differentially experiencing the crisis, youth agency and creativity in coping with the crisis, and youth hopes for the future. Participants worked with photovoice or cellphilming, participatory visual methodologies that support participants to produce visual texts to identify, explore, and act on critical issues in their lives (Mitchell 2011; Mitchell et al. 2017). These approaches position participants’ knowledges and perspectives as critical to addressing biases in mainstream research that excludes or marginalizes particular sections of society, such as young people. Participatory visual methodologies offer ways to engage participants in collective forms of inquiry in a meaningful way about issues that matter to them.

We recruited students attending both public and private schools, based on the inequitable school system responses at the start of the pandemic. After Quebec schools closed their doors on March 13, private secondary schools and CEGEPs3 introduced online classes within a few weeks, while public secondary schools took almost two months to provide formal instruction.

Reaching young people virtually in the context and urgency of the crisis was challenging. After our initial efforts to recruit in Montreal through our personal networks, we extended our recruitment Quebec-wide through a youth organization's communication channels. We also approached an Indigenous community, Wemotaci, where Myriagone had previously worked. With these approaches, we could not reach private school students, so we returned again to our personal networks in Montreal and Joliette. Recruiting through many channels generated diverse groupings of participants across public and private, secondary and post-secondary, and urban, rural, and Indigenous contexts. Our data about public secondary students is limited to the acutely affected urban context of Montreal. These trends make it difficult for us to compare inequities across school systems and geographic contexts, especially given our small and diverse cohort of participants. Yet we acknowledge how schooling and location, along with age and secondary or post-secondary status, remain important factors in shaping the experiences of young people during the pandemic.

Participatory Visual Methodologies at a Distance

Group sessions (1 to 1.5 hours each) were facilitated with participants in French on Zoom in May and June 2020 by authors Macabena Perez and Paquette. For public and private school participants, we planned for groups of four but sometimes worked with groups of two or three to accommodate participant availability. Prior to meeting, we emailed participants video tutorials, How to Make a Cellphilm (Thompson et al. 2020). In the first session, participants had an opportunity to meet each other and the facilitators, to learn about photovoice and cellphilming by looking at and discussing some examples, and to collectively brainstorm possible topics for their creations through prompts such as “What is happening in your life right now?” Participants then worked individually to produce photos or a cellphilm over approximately one week, during which we provided support as needed. In a second session, participants shared and co-analysed their photos and cellphilms by identifying the themes and areas of concern they saw emerging in the work. The Indigenous participants (from the smallest and most remote community in the study) faced internet restrictions for streaming video and therefore took photos and participated in individual audio interviews. We sought permission to use participants’ creations for research purposes after visual production.

Following the tenets of participatory research, we established trustworthiness by organizing the data and grounding our analysis in girls’ words, ideas, and interpretations. The research team also took fieldnotes and conducted several reflexive analysis sessions in order to narrow the key themes across the groups and the data. We are in the process of developing a research brief to present the findings to the participants.

Gender was not a central focus of the study. Given the novelty of facilitating creative interactive group processes virtually, as well as our recruitment difficulties, we focused on how to engage young people more generally. Some sessions involved only girls, and others also involved boys. In the discussions that were co-constructed between girls and boys, gendered dynamics influenced the process: the boys tended to speak first, for longer periods of time, and more frequently. Given this gender dynamic, we are compelled in this article to focus exclusively on the photographs and cellphilms produced by the girl and young women participants, in order to amplify girls’ and young women's voices.

The 13 girls and young women between 13 and 19 years of age constitute a diverse group from the urban areas of Montreal, Joliette, and Sorel-Tracy, from the rural region of Beauce, and from the remote Indigenous community of Wemotaci with six girls and young women attending public secondary school or CEGEP and seven attending private secondary school. Presenting their eleven cellphilms, three photos, and co-analysis, we focus on how girls understood, processed, acted on, and sometimes overcame their circumstances during the period of self-isolation related to COVID-19 in early 2020. With their permission, we include links to cellphilms that girls have made public on their personal channels. It is at the girls’ discretion when they choose to remove their cellphilms from social media. Keeping in mind the idea that wellbeing is a situated, relational process (Atkinson 2013), we focus on girls’ socio-emotional and political analyses of their experiences and concerns about individual and collective wellbeing.

Negotiating Wellbeing

Facing Hard Times

The pandemic led to girls and women experiencing some difficult emotions. The initial shock and disruption of the pandemic was overwhelming, destabilizing, and discouraging. Marianne (19) from the Montreal area, who had just completed CEGEP, narrates her cellphilm L'Incertitude de la Pandémie (The Uncertainty of the Pandemic)4 over melancholic piano music. One by one, she lists the closures of gatherings, schools, businesses, soccer practices, and frisbee games. Marianne found the uncertainty stressful. She asks, “Who would have believed that a situation like this would happen to us?” She goes on to explain, “Something is missing … It's like you get up in the morning and you are in a really bad mood. And you don't know why.” Self-isolation became tiring and repetitive; girls faced hard times finding purpose and self-discipline. Looking ahead to some long and sometimes difficult and unhappy days and not being able to see friends created loneliness and a sense of loss, compounded by fear about the uncertainty of the moment and future.

Negotiating wellbeing while self-isolating at home also highlighted the embodied, relational nature of wellbeing. Joanie's (18) cellphilm Isolement COVID-19 (COVID-19 Isolation)5 focuses on her experience of staying home in Sorel-Tracy. She notes, “I wanted to show, in a funny way, that you can flip out in isolation.” In her cellphilm, Joanie emulates the strong grasp of the coronavirus morphology by climbing a fence to show how the virus, in her words, “attaches itself” (see Figure 1). She wants to show how isolation could take hold, like the virus. The physical aspects of health and staying well are entangled with isolation.

Figure 1:
Figure 1:

Joanie climbs a fence to represent how isolation can take hold, like a virus.

Citation: Girlhood Studies 13, 3; 10.3167/ghs.2020.130305

The closure of school and the cancellation of activities, along with the need to stay home, profoundly disrupted and transformed social life and routine. Many girls and young women echoed the opening lines of EB's cellphilm about feeling unmotivated during lockdown. Marianne (19) found that having fewer activities affected her sleep. She said, “Even though my schedule is less busy [and] I try to keep busy, I'm not tired at night. It's like I always have the same energy.” The abrupt change in their routines provoked emotional tensions, much like an accentuated roller coaster of highs and lows. Tensions between being busy and being bored, between feeling good and feeling not so good, between having purpose and feeling lost offer critical insights into girls’ wellbeing during self-isolation. Importantly, girls and young women resisted positioning themselves as passive victims of the pandemic by focusing their photos, cellphilms, and co-analysis on identifying the strategies they developed to find wellness with others.

Appreciating Having More Time for Activities and Connection

Despite the difficulties of self-isolation, girls and young women were grateful to have more time in their lives. At first, this was challenging. As Charlie (16) noted, “Now I have nothing. It's just hours and hours and hours …” Spending more time at home was a significant change from their usual lifestyles that involved being out of the house.

Missing friends was pronounced, yet some girls observed that the pandemic was facilitating stronger and deeper connections with friends, as well as deciding which friends become important. Several girls appreciated the break from high school drama and conflict in their friendship groups. Most girls valued becoming closer to their family members, despite what one called “the little frictions” at home. While public school students had more extended unstructured time compared to those at private schools because of the delayed shift to online classes, many girls were happy to have more time for activities and social connections outside of school. Many liked having schedules, wanted schedules, and created schedules as a way of keeping busy and finding things to do. Girls’ cellphilms and stories focused on staying active: walking; jogging; doing pushups and squats; going for bike rides; and participating in online exercise classes.

Girls responded actively to the situation of self-isolation by exploring creative activities and hobbies. Common among all girl participants was how they discovered new interests, a type of self-directed learning that girls often found limited in their pre-COVID school-focused routines. Maya (14) noted,

We can see all the activities that we do that don't have to do with school, and that we wouldn't be doing if we weren't in this situation … We have more time to do other things. It feels good.

Without the intensity of school, girls had more time to read books and connect with family, to play the violin and write music, to sew and garden, and to learn new languages. Maria's (15) cellphilm6 features her cooking projects as an accessible activity; she depicted her successes and challenges in trying new recipes, from burning the butter and dropping a fresh salad on the floor to showcasing gorgeous pastries and piles of banana pancakes. Having more time, especially for public school students, allowed space for creativity and self-discovery in trying, doing, and learning new skills and activities. Girls had time to explore what mattered to them.

Naming and Navigating the Pressure to be Productive

At the same time, many girls felt guilty for “doing nothing” or “wasting time” and felt an immense pressure to be productive. This pressure percolated through girls’ narratives in complex ways. While girls found motivation and hope through hobbies and physical activity, they also identified the challenges they faced in navigating the social pressures to be productive.

One young woman (15), who preferred to remain anonymous, missed her dance training enormously and faced a negative spiral of feelings. Her cellphilm Motivation Malgré COVID (Motivation Despite COVID) begins with a shot of herself lying groggy in bed. She felt that sleeping until 11 and watching TV all day meant she was lazy, a self-criticism shared by many other girls.

I feel … guilty when I'm not doing a lot, when I'm staying in my room … Sometimes I just decide to do nothing. This makes me feel worse. I could change, but I don't … All my life, I've put a lot of pressure on myself to train. With school, I had a routine. I did my homework, and I was happy. But with the pandemic, I wasn't motivated. It was a vicious cycle. I felt really bad. I put more pressure on myself. I didn't do my homework anymore.

Her cellphilm then shows how she overcame this cycle through jogging, which helped her to feel more motivated to follow a new routine.

Other girls resisted productivity discourses and were grateful for the ways in which self-isolation offered some solace from the pressures related to school. The pandemic provided new time for self-care. Coralie (15) said, “It gives us more time. It helped me; I'm doing better … It was also a bit more time for me to think.”

The young woman (16) from Wemotaci enjoyed having more time to walk and take photographs of a sunset, for example (see Figure 2). She preferred her life during COVID: she could sleep more and go out walking with her friend. She missed talking to the support worker at her school although she also admitted that school had presented more significant struggles. The pandemic helped her to disconnect from academic pressures. She said, “With school, I was stressed about exams. Now there is no more school, it's like a break. I'm less stressed, more relaxed.” While many girls missed school, they also acknowledged how schooling sometimes imposes expectations that affect girls’ wellbeing. Maria (15) explained, “Before, everything was planned but it wasn't us who planned it. We didn't have a choice. School decided.” Others were well aware of the social value placed on being busy. Charlie (16) reflected critically on the idea of productivity during the pandemic.

Figure 2:
Figure 2:

“I thought this was beautiful. When I walk outside, I have time to think about almost everything, to relax. I feel lucky.” (Anonymous, 16)

Citation: Girlhood Studies 13, 3; 10.3167/ghs.2020.130305

We're in a society where you always have to be productive. In this moment, with everything that is happening, it is hard to keep always being productive … This is really hard for me. Before, I only considered my schoolwork to be productive. Now, it is productive to do things for myself, as well … A walk is productive … I ate, I did math, I called my friend … That is productive now.

Charlie identified the most significant change in her life since the pandemic started as being how she had redefined her relationship with productivity.

With the ways that girls negotiate and resist productivity, we suggest that self-isolation has provided a critical shift in agency and choice in that girls and young women began deciding how they wanted to spend their time, for themselves, in new ways. Girls’ time during self-isolation was less occupied, more improvised and—eventually—intentional and this was an important shift from an imposed structure to a self-created one. This shift towards intrinsic, autonomous motivation is fundamental in working towards self-determination as Edward Deci and Richard Ryan (2008) remind us. Recalling EB's focus on staying positive, we emphasize how girls enacted hope and positivity, not only as something for themselves but also as something for others. Girls wanted to show both the challenges and the positive, funny, and diverse range of responses to others. In the context of colonial and neoliberal discourses in education systems that privilege meritocracy and individualistic competition, the pressure to be productive surfaced quite strongly for girls and young women during the crisis.

Making Media to Respond to the Media: Girls’ Political Voices

Girls also advocated for collective wellbeing through their critical engagements with media, adding their political voices to public discourses about the pandemic. Charlie's (16) Quarantine Cellphilm7 opens with a close-up shot of herself looking at the camera. She leans her head on her hand: she looks weary and distraught. Speaking quietly, almost tearfully, she says, “This sucks.” Charlie explained her decision to insert this clip, allowing a moment of vulnerability into her cellphilm when she felt sad and alone.

I wanted to show that it's not all good moments … I think social media shows good moments … [But] everyone has challenges right now: everyone is traumatized, everyone is on a roller coaster. I think it's important to see the low points. At the start, my cellphilm was just happy moments with my friends. But I decided to include the moment when I felt lonely, when I felt overwhelmed. It's important to see that, too.

Charlie wanted to counter the positivity tropes that she encountered on social media. Other girls focused on positivity in their photos and cellphilms to counter the negativity they observed in the media. The point is that girls responded critically to the media and offered alternative perspectives and messages with their visual creations. Girls felt that they had a role to play in shaping media representations in ways that reflected their realities and concerns.

Girls also focused on collective wellbeing in their responses to press briefings regarding education as well as about government decisions more broadly. Many girls were concerned about the troubling differences in the responses of education systems and how public secondary school students struggled to complete their school year over a few weeks of online classes with limited support. In her cellphilm Mes Expériences Pendant la Pandémie (My Experiences During the Pandemic)8 Maya (14), who attends a private school in Montreal, spoke out about the injustices that became more pronounced during the pandemic as she empathized with her public school friends’ inequitable access to online classes. Maria (15), a public school student, described feeling that public schools had been forgotten, abandoned, and left behind by the Ministry of Education. In general, many participants did not feel consulted or heard. Joanie (18) wanted decision-makers to know that “it's just as hard for us as it is for you. We're in the same boat, but we don't know what is going on.”

Many girls noted how the pandemic exposed existing social problems. Maria (15) said, “The inequalities between public and private schools has always been a problem. It's just more accentuated now. We feel it more … It is not something new. I felt it before the pandemic … Now we see the problems.” From their concern about the poor management of Quebec's long-term care facilities and issues related to elder abuse and neglect as well as the health and wellbeing of more vulnerable people in general, girls engaged with issues related to justice, discrimination, and power.

From questioning the adequacy and ambiguity of government responses, to how inconsistent media messaging created unnecessary uncertainty, and the empty speeches of politicians, girls considered political wellbeing an important concern. Maria (15) appraised government decisions in relation to global questions about surveillance.

In some countries, people couldn't go outside. If you didn't have a pass you would be arrested. People were monitored. I think there needs to be a balance between safety and public life. We live in a democratic country … Compared to other countries, I think Canada is one of the countries that reacted well.

These politically engaged participants are thinking about collective wellbeing and speaking out against injustices. Girls produced alternative media texts that engaged critically with the politics of the pandemic at different scales from bodies, households, and communities to province, nation, and world. The Girl in the Pandemic interrupts dominant discourses, shifting and bringing into question whose voices and concerns are being listened to—an essential component of wellbeing.

Creative Research as Intervention During the Pandemic

Several girls said that participating in the research improved their wellbeing during self-isolation. Taking photos, making cellphilms, and discussing their ideas together with other participants and the researchers helped girls and young women to address the challenges they described in relation to solitude and the heaviness, as it were, of self-isolation. Participating in the research interrupted the mundane that had set in during quarantine. Many of them first-time filmmakers, the girls liked learning how to make a cellphilm. Taking photos or making a cellphilm prompted many girls to use the very activities that supported their wellbeing for their creation. Young women were compelled to walk outside, and intentionally connect with their friends. For Charlie (16), cellphilming provided an excuse to call her friends on the West coast (where she is from), with whom she usually cannot connect because of the 3-hour time difference. Charlie explained, “I asked [my friends], ‘This week, can we have a call?’ It's not just for my cellphilm … it's also for me.’”

Sophie (17) interviewed a group of her friends at a Montreal park about their experiences of the pandemic for her cellphilm. This initiative extended the inquiry outwards through Sophie's social networks and prompted self-reflexivity. She admitted, “The best part about that project was that I reflected on what I am doing. It made me notice.” Other girls found that talking to other people about their experiences helped them to normalize the situation, articulate how they felt, and punctuate this moment in their lives.

Participating in the research contributed to girls’ self-transformation during self-isolation. For Marianne (19), the research prompted her to see her circumstances differently. She explained, “I realized that I really needed to find solutions, or it wasn't going to work. I thought, I can't keep living in this state. It's going to last a long time.” She said,

It felt good to know how other youth were experiencing this … Before making my cellphilm, the pandemic really frustrated me. Every time I heard the news, I was frustrated: I couldn't see my friends, I couldn't work, I couldn't do sports with other people. [Cellphilming] allowed me to express my emotions … share [my] point of view … be able to talk with a cellphilm; it can reach more people.

Cellphilming helped Marianne to see her capacity to adapt, reframing her experiences of the pandemic. Many girls described using art to communicate their emotions and ideas creatively as therapeutic. As Charlie (16), indicated, “I think there is hope in creativity.”

Looking Ahead

In this article, we mobilized The Girl in the Pandemic in positioning girls and young women as knowers and agents of change in depicting, acting on, and reframing their circumstances during a COVID-19 lockdown. We offer a snapshot of how girls negotiated wellbeing at a particular moment during the crisis after the initial shock had subsided and before Quebec began deconfining over the summer. With the closure of schools and the need to stay home, girls and young women emphasized the importance of having more unstructured time. Because structure is familiar, destructuring can be hard, painful, and stressful. Yet, restructuring can be empowering and can provide opportunities for girls to learn about themselves and their interests. In producing and co-analyzing visual texts together, girls and young women engaged with the worlds around them to assert their concerns and questions about the politics of the pandemic. Girls have a lot to say and feel that they should be heard, that they can contribute, and that they can make a difference. In the context of growing concerns about mental health and wellbeing related to the pandemic, engaging in action, doing research together in creative ways can help provide new opportunities for learning and connection. These perspectives can help decision-makers and practitioners, for example, within the education system, to develop policies and practices that critically question the norms and culture of education that focuses on structure and productivity and that diminishes young peoples’ abilities to get to know themselves and their communities. As the uncertainty of the pandemic persists and a second wave emerges, we look ahead to the likelihood that distancing will remain necessarily a way of life for a while and advocate for the critical need to continue involving girls and young women in our understandings of what is happening and how to address it.

Acknowledgements

We extend our sincere thanks to the young people who contributed their time and ideas to make this research possible. Their involvement surpassed our expectations about what we thought could be possible during the pandemic. We also thank our families and households for their support as we worked intensively on this study during the crisis. This research was conducted as part of Myriagone, the McConnell-University of Montreal Chair in Youth Knowledge Mobilization, co-chaired by Isabelle Archambault, Nancy Beauregard, Véronique Dupéré, Sarah Fraser, and Katherine Frohlich. This study was funded by the University of Montreal Center for Public Health Research (CReSP), as well as by Myriagone, the McConnell-University of Montreal Chair in Youth Knowledge Mobilization.

Notes

1

We use pseudonyms when participants requested anonymity.

2

At the time of writing, the WHO recommended a physical distance of one meter. In practice, public health institutions in different contexts can recommend between one and two meters.

3

This is French acronym for General and Vocational Colleges.

4

Marianne's cellphilm, L'incertitude de la pandémie [1:11]: https://youtu.be/0ktb3CKkhdw

5

Joanie's cellphilm, Isolement COVID-19 [1:05]: https://youtu.be/EJ7oM8I1Zh0

6

Maria's cellphilm, Myriagone projet de recherche [0:47]: https://youtu.be/9JHkQdUICp8

7

Charlie's cellphilm, Quarantine Cellphilm [1:00]: https://youtu.be/Pnb5IxnmJz4

8

Maya's cellphilm, Mes experiences pendant la pandémie [1:16]: https://youtu.be/X7kPed-C8UA

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Filmography

Thompson, Jennifer, Rocio Macabena Perez, Charlotte Paquette, Bella Levitt, and Nelson Holland. 2020. Comment Faire un Cellphilm/How to Make a Cellphilm [Video]. Montreal, QC: Myriagone McConnell-UdeM Chair in Youth Knowledge Mobilization. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL0t7A9ItFghOPkGEPhEvLUYb13kpIJc_F

Contributor Notes

Jennifer Thompson (ORCID: 0000-0003-2921-6887) is a postdoctoral fellow with Myriagone at the University of Montreal, with experience in participatory visual research. Email: jennifer.thompson@umontreal.ca

Sarah Fraser (ORCID: 0000-0001-7754-2412), co-chair of Myriagone, the McConnell-University of Montreal Chair in Youth Knowledge Mobilization, is an Associate Professor in Psychoeducation at the University of Montreal with a focus on Indigenous community mobilization. Email: sarah.fraser.1@umontreal.ca

Rocio Macabena Perez (ORCID: 0000-0002-0393-8438) is a doctoral student in the School of Psychoeducation at the University of Montreal evaluating community-based art programing. Email: rocio.macabena. perez@umontreal.ca

Charlotte Paquette (ORCID: 0000-0002-0336-0453) is a Master's student in the School of Psychoeducation at the University of Montreal investigating gaming addiction. Email: charlotte.paquette@umontreal.ca

Katherine L. Frohlich (ORCID: 0000-0002-5519-2455), co-chair of Myriagone, is a Professor in the School of Public Health at the University of Montreal with a focus on social inequities in urban youth health. Email: katherine.frohlich@umontreal.ca

Girlhood Studies

An Interdisciplinary Journal

  • View in gallery

    Joanie climbs a fence to represent how isolation can take hold, like a virus.

  • View in gallery

    “I thought this was beautiful. When I walk outside, I have time to think about almost everything, to relax. I feel lucky.” (Anonymous, 16)

  • Atkinson, Sarah. 2013. “Beyond Components of Wellbeing: The Effects of Relational and Situated Assemblage.” Topoi 32: 137144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11245-013-9164-0.

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  • Deci, Edward L., and Richard M. Ryan. 2008. “Self-determination Theory: A Macrotheory of Human Motivation, Development and Health: Canadian Psychology 49 (3): 182185. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012801.

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  • Evans, Scot D., and Isaac Prilleltensky. 2007. “Youth and Democracy: Participation for Personal, Relational and Collective Wellbeing. Journal of Community Psychology 35 (6): 681692. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20172.

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  • Government of Canada. 2020. “Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Outbreak update.” https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/2019-novel-coronavirus-infection.html#a1 (accessed 20 July 2020).

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  • Government of Quebec. 2020. “Situation of the coronavirus (COVID-19) in Quebec.” https://www.quebec.ca/en/health/health-issues/a-z/2019-coronavirus/situation-coronavirus-in-quebec/#c63036 (accessed 20 July 2020).

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  • Kearney, Mary Celeste. 2006. “Introduction: Producing Girls.” In Girls Make Media, ed. Mary Celeste Kearney, 116. New York, NY: Routledge.

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  • Holland, Janet. 2007. “Emotions and Research.” International Journal of Social Research Methodology 10 (3): 195209. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645570701541894

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  • Mitchell, Claudia, Naydene de Lange, and Relebohile Moletsane. 2017. Participatory Visual Methodologies: Social Change, Community and Policy. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.

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  • Mitchell, Claudia, and Jacqueline Reid-Walsh. 2009. “Girl Method: Placing Girl-centered Research Methodologies on the Map of Girlhood Studies.” In Roadblocks to Equality: Women Challenging Boundaries, ed. Jeffery Klaehn, 214233. Montreal, QC: Black Rose Books.

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  • Mukherjee, Utsa. 2020. “Rainbows, Teddy Bears and ‘Others’: The Cultural Politics of Children's Leisure Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Leisure Sciences (online) https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400.2020.1773978.

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  • Smith, Ann. ed. 2019. The Girl in the Text. New York: Berghahn.

  • The Guardian. 2020, 24 April. “How do Teenagers Live in Lockdown? – Photo Essay.” https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/24/how-do-teenagers-live-in-quarantine-photo-essay (accessed 25 April 2020).

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  • World Health Organization. 2020. “COVID-19: Physical distancing.” https://www.who.int/westernpacific/emergencies/covid-19/information/physical-distancing (accessed 18 September 2020).

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  • Thompson, Jennifer, Rocio Macabena Perez, Charlotte Paquette, Bella Levitt, and Nelson Holland. 2020. Comment Faire un Cellphilm/How to Make a Cellphilm [Video]. Montreal, QC: Myriagone McConnell-UdeM Chair in Youth Knowledge Mobilization. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL0t7A9ItFghOPkGEPhEvLUYb13kpIJc_F

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