Social Isolation and Disrupted Privacy

Impacts of COVID-19 on Adolescent Girls in Humanitarian Contexts

in Girlhood Studies
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  • 1 George Washington University, USA sbaird@gwu.edu
  • 2 GAGE Jordan sarahalheiwidi97@outlook.com
  • 3 George Washington Unviersity, USA rdutton@gwu.edu
  • 4 University of Cittagong, Bangladesh mituju@gmail.com
  • 5 George Washington University, USA emoakley@gwmail.gwu.edu
  • 6 Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia tassew.woldehanna@gmail.com
  • 7 Overseas Development Institute and GAGE, UK n.jones@odi.org.uk

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown has shattered the everyday lives of young people, limiting peer interactions and disrupting privacy, with potential for long-term detrimental impacts. This study uses rapid virtual quantitative and qualitative surveys undertaken from April to July 2020 with over 4,800 adolescents affected by displacement in Bangladesh and Jordan to explore adolescent girls’ experiences of social isolation and lack of privacy. Our mixed-methods findings suggest that the pandemic and policy response has caused sharp restrictions on privacy and substantially limited interactions with peers, with larger impacts on girls, particularly those with disabilities. For girls, digital exclusion exacerbates these gender differences. Given that privacy and peer interactions are paramount during adolescence, age-, gender-, and disability-responsive programming is essential to ensure future wellbeing.

Introduction

COVID-19 and government responses to contain it will have multi-dimensional effects on adolescent girls’ wellbeing in the short and long term. One area of concern is the simultaneous increase in lack of privacy and heightened social isolation resulting from the pandemic and subsequent lockdowns, and their likely reinforcement of pervasive inequitable gendered norms. Emerging research suggests that the physical distancing measures implemented to prevent the spread of the virus can lead to chronic loneliness and boredom with both physical and psychosocial health impacts if the isolation continues for an extended period as Debanjan Banerjee and Mayank Rai (2020) note. In the context of the lockdown in Wuhan, China, Banerjee and Rai (2020) argue that isolation from the community arising from the COVID-19 pandemic triggered a rapid increase in depression and anxiety. Similarly, Sijia Li et al. (2020), through an online survey before and after the official declaration of the epidemic on 20 January 2020, found a rise in negative emotions and sensitivity to social risks, as well as a decrease in scores of positive emotions and life satisfaction.

There has, however, been little attention paid to the specific impacts on the lives of adolescent girls (10 to 19 years of age), although adolescent health experts emphasize the critical importance of peer interaction in adolescent development trajectories (Patton et al. 2018). To address this evidence gap, we explore, in this article, the near-term impacts of COVID-19 on the gendered experiences of social isolation and lack of privacy by adolescent girls in two contrasting humanitarian contexts—Cox's Bazar host communities and Rohingya refugee camps in Bangladesh, and host communities in Palestinian and Syrian refugee camps in Jordan—with contrasting pandemic responses. We draw on mixed-methods analysis of data from rapid quantitative phone surveys with approximately 2,528 adolescent girls, and their caregivers, who are part of the Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) longitudinal sample, combined with virtual qualitative interviews with over 80 adolescent girls and 52 community key informants. We adopt an intersectional perspective in exploring the intersection of gender with other categories of social disadvantage (refugee status and disability). We conclude by reflecting on the possible implications for programming for a post-COVID-19 recovery that is responsive to the specific age and gender needs of girls.

Literature Review

The multidimensional impacts of policies to limit the spread of COVID-19 expose the complex vulnerabilities of adolescent girls in humanitarian contexts. Interrupted learning and temporary closure of workplaces and public services are likely to adversely affect adolescents (Banerjee and Rai 2020), especially girls. Moreover, restrictions to movement and economic constraints have cut adolescents off from ordinary resources of peer and community support. Restrictions to movements in camps and the need to interact with others for daily necessities make physical distancing a luxury that refugees seldom have (Kitchen 2020). While governments and NGOs work to combat the spread of misinformation, limited health services make infection control a monumental task in these settings as Bob Kitchen (2020) notes. In some areas, disruptions to routine services and food supplies because of the global preoccupation with COVID-19 and limitations to supply chains put additional strains on refugees (Truelove et al. 2020). Already at risk of mental health problems, displaced adolescents are subject to increased panic and fear of infection (Fegert et al. 2020).

Physical disabilities also affect adolescent girls’ ability to learn about and protect themselves from COVID-19. Practicing handwashing and physical distancing is difficult for those who need additional support to carry out daily functions (WHO 2020a). Girls with visual impairments may rely more on touch, which puts them at risk of exposure to the virus. Accommodating the needs of adolescents with disabilities may pose additional challenges for educators planning for the safe return of students to school during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Exacerbating the specific challenges of the pandemic is the fact that adolescence is a period of considerable flux. During the second decade of life young people's interactions with their families and peers undergo significant change. Family members play a significant role in developing self-esteem and modeling social interactions during the transition to adulthood (Collins and Laursen 2010). Moreover, young people increasingly look to their peers rather than their families for psychosocial support and this is associated with positive outcomes during adolescence and later in life (Crone and Dahl 2012; Poudel et al. 2020). Thus, the disruptions to peer interactions because of the pandemic are likely to exacerbate social isolation and limit access to social support systems with likely adverse impacts on adolescent development (Banerjee and Rai 2020).

Adolescents are also subject to increased gendered norms when compared to young children. Adolescents are taught about reproductive health in school, and this is often their only source of information on puberty (Coast et al. 2019). While teachers and school cultures do reinforce gendered norms, norms are often more inequitable at home (Lundgren et al. 2013). At home, the burden of household work continues to increase for female adolescents (UNICEF 2016), while boys have more time to study and socialize (Lundgren et al. 2013). School closures and disruption to extracurricular programs limit adolescents’ access to environments with more equitable gender norms such as girls’ clubs and safe space programmes.

Physical changes, the shame associated with these changes in some contexts, and the desire to hide their developing bodies, lead to a desire for increased privacy for adolescents (Bello et al. 2017). The lack of privacy has worsened during COVID-19, particularly in refugee populations, and remains a particular concern for adolescent girls given demands for their domestic and caring labor, combined with broader pervasive gendered norms (Tay et al. 2019).

In this regard, insights from girls’ studies literature—which focuses on critically engaging with how the figure of the girl is constructed, and its use and meaning as a category within different settings—provides a useful perspective from which to explore adolescent girls’ experiences during the pandemic. While the increased focus on girls—even their “hypervisibility” (Switzer et al. 2016: 35)— in international development in the recent decade has seen adolescence framed as a vital period for expanding girls’ capabilities, an intersectional, transnational feminist look at girlhood highlights the importance of the social and spatial in shaping girls’ experiences, and thus the need to engage with local contexts in order to understand girls’ lives (Desai 2016; Rentschler and Mitchell 2016; Shain 2013; Weems 2014).

Intersectional theory, developed by Kimberlé Crenshaw (1991) and fellow black feminist academics, draws attention to the ways in which existing systems of domination and division in society exacerbate the social exclusion and vulnerability of girls and women. In humanitarian contexts, the implications are that girls with disabilities and girls who are forcibly displaced will experience more constraints on their participation, voice, and agency than girls who are not disabled (Mendoza 2002).

However, knowledge gaps remain as to the perspectives of girls themselves in humanitarian contexts, limiting the localised and contextualised understandings of girls’ lives that can inform policy and programming. Nirmala Erevelles and Xuan Thuy Nguyen (2016) argue that hierarchies of power position the most marginalised girls as inherently vulnerable, rather than rendered so by colonialism, neoliberalism, and transnational capitalism. Critically engaging with these dynamics can aid in “tackling existing forms of exclusion based on commonly held perceptions of vulnerability within humanitarian and development discourse” (5). Drawing on key informant interviews and evidence reviews from 10 countries, Emma Pearce et al. (2016) show that conflict and displacement heighten existing discrimination against girls. This happens through the manipulation and reinforcement of oppressive social norms, and the breakdown of both informal and formal systems of justice during emergencies (Robles 2014).

Methods and Research Contexts

Together, transnational and intersectional feminist epistemologies lend themselves to methodological tools which centre not only local women and girls, but address the interests, access requirements, and strengths of people whose voices tend to be overlooked or obscured in traditional research approaches (Mitchell and Reid-Walsh 2009; Mohanty 2013). The GAGE methodological toolkit is designed to be adaptable in eliciting the voices and experiences of marginalised girls (Jones et al. 2018). In this article, we draw on innovative virtual quantitative surveys (Baird et al. 2020) and in-depth qualitative interviews (Jones et al. forthcoming; Małachowska et al. 2020) that were carried out by phone between April and July 2020 as part of the GAGE longitudinal study. GAGE started data collection between 2017 and 2019 (depending on context) with adolescents and youth currently 10 to 23 years of age.

Quantitative phone surveys took place from May to July 2020 with 4,827 adolescents of whom 2,528 were girls, residing in both refugee camps and host communities (see Table 1). For this analysis we focus on five main quantitative variables related to girls’ experiences of privacy and social isolation (Baird et al. 2020): privacy has been completely or moderately restricted compared to before the pandemic; mobility has been completely or moderately restricted compared to before the pandemic; the adolescent has seen friends in the last seven days; (girls only) cannot do things for entertainment that they used to do (watch TV/radio) because male members of the family are now at home; and (girls only) cannot talk with friends online or on the phone because male family members are now at home. Quantitative analysis look place in Stata 16. We provide means for survey responses disaggregated by subpopulations of interest for each sample, and test for statistical significance between the means of comparison groups. Means for the sample drawn from Bangladesh are weighted to ensure they are representative of the target population of these communities.

Table 1:  

Overview of quantitative research sample in Bangladesh and Jordan

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Notes: This table summarizes information from the GAGE COVID-19 Phone Survey, conducted in Bangladesh and Jordan May-July 2020.

†Within the Cox's Bazar sample, all “Camp” residents are Rohingya refugees, while all “Host” respondents are Bangladeshi.

The qualitative interviews were carried out by phone from April to May 2020 with 140 adolescents (80 girls and 60 boys), and 52 community key informants (see Table 2). Interviews were transcribed, translated, and coded using a thematic code book in MAXQDA. For both the quantitative and qualitative data collection, interviews were carried out by researchers in the respective countries who had built up prior relationships with participants in the GAGE longitudinal research, using local languages. Ethics approval was secured locally and internationally.

Table 2:  

Overview of qualitative research sample in Bangladesh and Jordan

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Contexts

Our two contexts are divergent in terms of human development indicators, refugee populations as a proportion of the total population, and rates of online connectivity. However, both are characterized by highly conservative gender social norms and high rates of gender inequality (see Table 3).

Table 3:  

Country overview (population, human development, connectivity and gender inequality)

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Source: UNDP, 2019; UNHCR 2020; OECD, 2019; World Bank, 2018

The public health responses to the pandemic in Bangladesh and Jordan also diverge significantly. The Bangladesh government's approach has been belated and fragmented while in Jordan it has been proactive, with an initial very strict lockdown and subsequent phased easing of restrictions. In Bangladesh, schools closed in late March and are expected to reopen only in January 2021, whereas in Jordan schools reopened as of September 2020 for all students, but then quickly closed again.

In terms of infection trajectories, Bangladesh has seen a rapid escalation of infections since April with 332,970 cases recorded as of 11 September and 4,634 deaths (WHO 2020c), although testing rates remain among the lowest in the world (IEDCR 2020). In terms of Rohingya refugees in Cox's Bazar, as of 9 September 2020, seven Rohingya had died of the virus, which is estimated to be approximately one-ninth of deaths in surrounding communities with 4,082 cases compared to just 65 in the camps (WHO 2020b). However, this is likely because of very low testing rates—981 tests per week in July (WHO 2020b). In Jordan, the caseload is much lower, with 3,852 cases as of 17 September, and 26 deaths. However, since August the rate of increase has been accelerating, and as of 17 September there were 10 confirmed cases among Syrian refugees (UNHCR 2020b).

Findings

We turn now to our mixed-methods findings on the impacts of the pandemic and government containment measures on adolescent girls’ privacy and in-person and virtual social connectedness.

Disrupted Privacy

Our findings underscore a significant impact of the pandemic and ensuing lockdowns on adolescents’ privacy. In Bangladesh, approximately one-third of respondents reported decreased privacy as a result of COVID-19, while in Jordan the figure was significantly higher at almost half of adolescents (see Table 4). Gender differences were mixed across countries and by age. In Bangladesh, rates by gender were similar, with older adolescents having significantly higher rates than younger adolescents. In Jordan, on the other hand, rates are slightly higher for younger adolescents, with similar rates across genders. We find similar rates of decreased privacy across camp and host in Jordan, while in Bangladesh we find substantially higher decreases among host residents, perhaps again reflecting the already substantially limited privacy in camp settings.

Table 4:  

Percentage of respondents reporting moderate or complete decrease in privacy

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Notes: This table summarizes information from the GAGE COVID-19 Phone Survey, conducted in Bangladesh and Jordan May-July 2020. Statistically significant differences in means between comparison groups are denoted with an X when p < 0.05.

†Within the Cox's Bazar sample, all “Camp” residents are Rohingya refugees, while all “Host” respondents are Bangladeshi.

ǂ Means presented for these samples are weighted to make them representative of the target population in the study communities.

These survey findings resonate with the qualitative interview findings that highlighted a range of privacy challenges that adolescent girls have been facing since the lockdowns. Many reported that since school closures they had had very limited control over their time, and have faced increased domestic and care work burdens. As a 15-year-old Bangladeshi girl from the Teknaf host community explained,

Prior to COVID I used to do household chores, but then I used to go to play somewhere … You tell me, a person who used to roam around all day, if she has to stay at home all day long how will she feel? I feel suffocated to stay at home all the day.

For in-school adolescents, crowded home environments meant that they had inadequate privacy to focus properly on their studies. A 15-year-old Palestinian refugee girl with a visual disability in Gaza Camp, Jordan, described the situation in her household:

My sister is studying at high school for her Tawjhi (12th grade national exam); she is very stressed because the studying is difficult during this curfew. All my brothers are staying at home and they make noise. So, we can't concentrate on our study.

A Syrian refugee community leader from Zataari Camp concurred, emphasizing the combined challenges of highly crowded living quarters and parents’ limitations in supporting their adolescents in their studies, both because of low levels of education and time poverty. She noted,

I am against the idea of e-learning through the television, especially here in the camp, because the caravans are small, for example, with six or more people in one caravan, a child cannot follow his lessons with concentration … Children also need follow-up from the parents to be able to follow their lessons but … many mothers are illiterate and also do not have time because of domestic work overload.

Not surprisingly given the generally cramped living quarters of many vulnerable households and the fact that the lockdown is compelling all family members to spend significantly more time together, many adolescent girls reported that the loss of individual privacy had exacerbated household tensions. As a 17-year-old Syrian refugee living in a Mafraq host community noted, the quarantine places an unprecedented burden on adolescent girls to conform to family demands around both emotional and domestic work support. She explained,

If the quarantine lasts longer, nothing will improve our situation … When my mom is upset about me, she wants me to get out of the house, when I am upset about my father, I want him to get out of the house. If the quarantine continues, we will cut each other … I feel the house depends on me, if I am upset then everyone gets upset … I try to be as positive as possible, but from the inside I am not.

Some respondents observed that the lack of privacy was especially challenging for adolescent girls given their changing bodies and associated notions of shame, particularly around menstruation. As a Syrian community leader in Azraq refugee camp, Jordan underscored,

When the family is together in a space of a 6 by 4m. room … there are too many problems … Adolescents need privacy, they have personal issues, and they feel that they are different … the girls too need their privacy and personal space.

Social Isolation from In-person Networks

Exacerbating the privacy deficits within the household that many adolescents are facing under COVID-19 lockdowns, is social isolation from in-person networks. Our survey findings show that on average only about one-third of young people had interacted with a friend in the last seven days at the time of the survey (see Table 5). There were significant gender differences in both contexts, with older girls being significantly less likely to have interacted with a friend than their male peers. Among younger adolescents, we see similar rates for boys and girls in Jordan, but in Bangladesh there are significant gender differences with girls already having fewer opportunities for socialization.

Table 5:  

Percentage of respondents who interacted with friends in person in last week

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Notes: See Table 3

These results align with our qualitative findings which highlight that young people feel isolated from their friends, school, and non-formal education peers, with specific gendered impacts. For adolescent girls, the sense of isolation from peers was acute, with many girls saying that their mental health was suffering as a result. A 14-year-old Syrian refugee girl from Mafraq host community, Jordan, explained,

I have such a bad feeling, because I used to meet my friends and play with them, but now I cannot … I consider my friend as my sister … She is Jordanian. There are common things between us. She can understand me. I can understand her.

Similarly, a 15-year-old Rohingya refugee girl in Camp 24 noted that her social interaction had narrowed to family members because of the intersecting effects of cultural restrictions on girls’ mobility and social distancing measures. She noted,

Only the family members talk to each other now. There is no connection with outside people like before. We don't like this environment … Even if we have some news to share from outside [the diaspora] we can't even bring this now. People don't want to talk to us. They don't want to come out of home.

For many adolescents, the closure of schools had a significant impact on their sense of isolation, cutting off a key venue for socially acceptable interactions with peers, and also restricting access to teachers, who, at least for some, are trusted adults in their lives. The importance of learning together with peers also emerged as a key part of the learning process thwarted by the COVID-19 lockdown. As a 13-year-old Syrian refugee girl from an informal tented settlement in Irbid noted,

We used to talk with school friends about lessons, what happened in class … when I felt sad they would come to me, make me laugh and play … but now I just pray that Allah removes this disease and we get back like before to go back to school.

The suspension of after-school clubs for adolescents and youth also emerged as a concern. A 12-year-old Syrian girl from Azraq refugee camp in Jordan emphasized her sense of isolation following the closure of the adolescent club in her neighborhood,

I feel sad and bored … I comb my sister's hair 10 times daily, change her trousers and dresses … I have nothing else to do. Before I had school and my after-school lessons … I used to feel happy when I met my friends.

This sense of loss was particularly significant in Rohingya refugee camps where, in the absence of formal education, learning centers and child-friendly spaces are key outlets for younger adolescent girls to meet up safely with peers.

Exclusion from the Digital Environment

A second key domain of social connectedness important to adolescents is the digital environment, particularly during the pandemic since it is a main method of connecting with peers, accessing information about the pandemic, and using online education resources. However, our findings underscore that a significant number of vulnerable adolescents in our sample, especially girls, lack access to media and digital technology (see Table 6). Our survey showed that in both contexts, girls face gender-based constraints in accessing TV and radio: ranging from 28.1 percent in Cox's Bazar to 36.5 percent in Jordan. In terms of being able to talk on the phone or online with friends, there were also significant gender-based constraints, ranging from 22.7 percent in Cox's Bazar to 27.3 percent in Jordan, with especially high barriers among Palestinian refugees (30.6 percent).

Table 6:  

Percentage of female respondents reporting gender-based constraints on behavior during COVID-19

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Notes: See Table 3.

Exclusion from media and internet was also highlighted in the qualitative interviews. For many adolescents, poverty, heightened during the pandemic, is a key challenge in terms of accessing the digital environment. For refugee communities in camp settings there is also the added challenge of limited internet connection because of security concerns by host governments. Adolescent girls emphasized that in addition to the challenges of digital infrastructure and poverty, they also had to negotiate conservative gender norms in order to be able to access a mobile phone or the internet, given fears that girls could use these devices to contact boys and risk family honor. As a 17-year-old adolescent Syrian refugee girl from Irbid host community in Jordan noted, “I am totally disconnected from my friends. We can't go anywhere. I rarely talk to them—I have to ask to use my dad's phone.” Similarly, a 13-year-old girl living in an informal settlement in Irbid explained, “I do not have a mobile, but my brothers do. We as girls are not allowed to get a mobile. We also do not have money to buy them.” For adolescent girls with disabilities, the challenges of displacement and discriminatory gender norms were compounded by their disability status, with adolescent girls with hearing impairments in our sample, for example, underscoring the additional exclusion they felt from friends when compared to other young people who can stay in contact via mobile phone. As a 15-year-old Palestinian refugee girl with a hearing impairment emphasized, “I am very afraid! I am very frustrated! The streets are empty due to the corona virus and I am only staying at home. I can't talk with my friends on WhatsApp as my brothers and peers do.”

Discussion and Conclusions

These findings highlight the challenges faced by adolescent girls affected by displacement in terms of disrupted privacy and social isolation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting lockdowns. Looking at these two distinct humanitarian contexts in terms of demographics and pandemic policy response—Bangladesh and Jordan—our mixed-methods findings suggest vast disruptions to adolescents’ lives, with particular challenges for girls and girls with disabilities.

Our quantitative findings highlight strong disruptions in privacy given the policy response, particularly for older adolescents. The qualitative findings shed light on the specific and interconnected difficulties girls face particularly the inability to concentrate on studying, having limited breaks from chores, experiencing increased tension in the household, and facing the challenges related to their changing bodies and menstruation. These findings resonate with the existing literature on adolescents’ desire for privacy (Bello et al. 2017), with particular concerns for girls related to excessive domestic work and increasingly salient gendered norms (Tay et al. 2019).

Disrupted privacy is further compounded by the social isolation measures required to mitigate COVID-19. In the seven days prior to the quantitative surveys, only one-third of adolescents had interacted with a friend, with much lower rates for girls than boys, particularly for older adolescents. The qualitative findings further highlight the fact that the overwhelming sentiment is a longing for social interaction with peers, at schools and in non-formal education spaces, particularly for girls with disabilities. The qualitative data also underscores the mental toll social isolation is placing on adolescents, resonating with the literature on the role of peers for psychosocial support and adding to the evidence base on the specific mental health challenges facing refugees (Fegert et al. 2020). Lack of digital access, particularly for girls in refugee camp settings and girls with disabilities, intensifies these impacts.

Given the importance of adolescence for future life-course outcomes (Patton et al. 2018), and the role of privacy and social inclusion in promoting healthy development (Banerjee and Rai 2020; Yang et al. 2016), intervention is likely needed to mitigate the long-term adverse effects of COVID-19. Incentives for adolescents, particularly girls, to return to school will be critical (Bandeira et al. 2018), as will support through catch-up education programs. Additionally, low-cost mental health care such as group interpersonal therapy could be employed to tackle the psycho-emotional toll of the pandemic. Ultimately, in order to build back better after COVID-19 it will be important to develop a package of support that is responsive to age, gender, and intersectionality.

Acknowledgements

We thank Mindset, IPA, and Laterite for overseeing data collection, and Kate Pincock for research assistance. The GAGE program is funded by UK aid from the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO). The views expressed and information contained here are not endorsed by FCDO, which accepts no responsibility for such views or information or for any reliance placed on them.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shain, Farzana. 2013. “‘The Girl Effect’: Exploring Narratives of Gendered Impacts and Opportunities in Neoliberal Development.” Sociological Research Online 18 (2): 181191. https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.2962

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
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  • Switzer, Heather, Emily Bent, and Crystal Endsley. 2016. “Precarious Politics and Girl Effects: Exploring the Limits of the Girl Gone Global.” Feminist Formations 28 (1): 3359. https://doi.org/10.1353/ff.2016.0014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tay, Alvin Kuowei, Andrew Riley, Rafiqul Islam, Courtney Welton-Mitchell, Benedicte Duchesne … and Peter Ventevogel. 2019. “The Culture, Mental Health and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Rohingya Refugees: A Systematic Review.” Epidemiology & Psychiatric Science 28 (5): 489494. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796019000192 10.1017/S2045796019000192.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Truelove, Shaun, Orit Abrahim, Chiara Altare, Stephen A. Lauer, Krya H. Grantz, Andrew S. Azman, and Paul Spiegel. 2020. “The Potential Impact of COVID-19 in Refugee Camps in Bangladesh and Beyond: A Modeling Study.” PLOS Medicine 17 (6). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003144.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2020a. “Refugee Data Finder. https://www.unhcr.org/refugee-statistics/

  • UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2020b. “UNHCR Jordan COVID-19 Response and Preparedness.” Amman: UNHCR. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/UNHCR%20Jordan%20COVID-19%20response%20-%20September%202020.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
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  • UNICEF (The United Nations International Children's Fund). 2016. “Girls Spend 160 Million More Hours than Boys Doing Household Chores Every Day.” 7 October. https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/girls-spend-160-million-more-hours-boys-doing-household-chores-everyday

    • Search Google Scholar
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  • Weems, Lisa. 2014. “Refuting ‘Refugee Chic’: Transnational Girl(hood)s and the Guerrilla Pedagogy of M.I.A.” Feminist Formations 26 (1): 115142.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization (WHO). 2020a. “Disability Considerations during the COVID-19 Outbreak.” https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-Disability-2020-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization (WHO). 2020b. “Emergency: Rohingya Crisis” Situation Report no. 14, 15 July. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/searo/bangladesh/bangladesh---rohingya-crisis---pdf-reports/sitreps/sitreps-2020/who-cox-s-bazar-sitrep-14.pdf?sfvrsn=745e8d53_2.

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  • WHO. 2020c. “WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard.” https://covid19.who.int.

  • Yang, Yang Claire, Courtney Boen, Karen Gerken, Ting Li, Kristen Schorpp, and Kathleen Mullan Harris. 2020. “Social Relationships and Physiological Determinants of Longevity across the Human Life Span.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (3): 578583. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1511085112

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Contributor Notes

Sarah Baird (ORCID: 0000-0001-5363-8559) is an Associate Professor at George Washington University. Email: sbaird@gwu.edu

Sarah Alheiwidi (ORCID: 0000-0002-9193-6773) is a GAGE Jordan qualitative researcher. Email: Sarahalheiwidi97@outlook.com

Rebecca Dutton (ORCID: 0000-0002-1227-4477) is a DrPH student at George Washington University. Email: rdutton@gwu.edu

Khadija Mitu (ORCID: 0000-0001-9301-7589) teaches anthropology at the University of Chittagong. Email: mituju@gmail.com

Erin Oakley (ORCID: 0000-0002-6339-4823) is a Senior Research Assistant at George Washington University. Email: emoakley@gwmail.gwu.edu

Tassew Woldehanna (ORCID: 0000-0002-0658-4188) is Professor of Economics at Addis Ababa University. Email: tassew.woldehanna@gmail.com

Nicola Jones (ORCID: 0000-0002-9164-7947) is a Principal Research Fellow at the Overseas Development Institute and the Director of GAGE. Email: n.jones@odi.org.uk

Girlhood Studies

An Interdisciplinary Journal

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  • Desai, Karishma. 2016. “Teaching the Third World Girl: Girl Rising as a Precarious Curriculum of Empathy.” Curriculum Inquiry 46 (3): 248264. https://doi.org/10.1080/03626784.2016.1173510

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  • Fegert, Jörg, Benedetto Vitiello, Paul Plener, and Vera Clemens. 2020. “Challenges and Burden of the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic for Child and Adolescent Mental Health: A Narrative Review to Highlight Clinical and Research Needs in the Acute Phase and the Long Return to Normality.” Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 14 (20):111, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-020-00329-3.

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  • IEDCR (Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research). 2020. “Bangladesh COVID-19 Update.” Dhaka: Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research.

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  • Jones, Nicola, Sarah Baird, and Letisha Lunin. 2018. GAGE Research Design, Sample and Methodology. London: Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence.

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  • Jones, Nicola, Kate Pincock, Bassam Abu Hamad, Agnieszka Małachowska, Sally Youssef, Sarah Alheiwidi, and Kifah Bani Odeh. Forthcoming. “Ensuring No Voices Are Left Behind: The Use of Digital Storytelling and Diary-Writing in Times of Crisis.” In Researching in the Age of COVID-19. Volume II: Care and Resilience, ed. Helen Kara and Su-Ming Khoo. Bristol: Policy Press.

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  • Kitchen, Bob. 2020. “Refugees Do Not Have the Luxury of Social Distancing.” International Rescue Committee (IRC). 26 March. https://www.rescue.org/article/refugees-do-not-have-luxury-social-distancing

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  • Li, Sijia, Yilin Wang, Jia Xue, Nan Zhao, and Tingshao Zhu. 2020. “The Impact of COVID-19 Epidemic Declaration on Psychological Consequences: A Study on Active Weibo Users.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (6): 2032. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062032.

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  • Lundgren, Rebecka, Miranda Beckman, Surendra Prasad Chaurasiya, Bhawna Subhedi, and Brad Kerner. 2013. “Whose Turn to Do the Dishes? Transforming Gender Attitudes and Behaviours among Very Young Adolescents in Nepal.” Gender & Development 21 (1): 127145. https://doi.org/10.1080/13552074.2013.767520

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  • Małachowska, Agnieszka, Nicola Jones, Bassam Abu Hamad, Taghreed Al Abbadi, Wafa Almaireh, and Sarah Alheiwidi. 2020. GAGE Virtual Research Toolkit: Qualitative Research with Young People on Their COVID-19 Experiences. London: Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence.

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  • Mendoza, Breny. 2002. Transnational Feminisms in Question. Feminist Theory 3 (3): 295314. https://doi.org/10.1177/146470002762492015.

  • Mitchell, Claudia, and Jacqueline Reid-Walsh. 2009. “Girl Method: Placing Girl-Centred Research Methodologies on the Map of Girlhood Studies.” In Roadblocks to Equality: Women Challenging Boundaries, ed. Jeffery Klaehn, 214233. Montreal: Black Rose Books.

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  • Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. 2013. “Transnational Feminist Crossings: On Neoliberalism and Radical Critique.” Signs 38 (4): 967991. https://doi.org/10.2307/2678832.

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  • Patton, George C., Craig A. Olsson, Vegard Skirbekk, Richard Saffery, Mary E. Wlodek, Peter S. Azzopardi … and Susan M. Sawyer. 2018. “Adolescence and the Next Generation.” Nature 554 (7693): 458466. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature25759

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  • Pearce, Emma, Kathryn Paik, and Omar J Robles. 2016. “Adolescent Girls with Disabilities in Humanitarian Settings: ‘I Am Not “Worthless,” I Am a Girl with a Lot to Share and Offer’.” Girlhood Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 9 (1): 118136.

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  • Poudel, Kritika, and Pramod Subedi. 2020. “Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Socioeconomic and Mental Health Aspects in Nepal.” International Journal of Social Psychiatry 66 (8): 748755. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020942247

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  • Rentschler, Carrie, and Claudia Mitchell. 2016. “The Significance of Place in Girlhood Studies.” In Girlhood and the Politics of Place, ed. Claudia Mitchell and Carrie Rentschler, 117. New York: Berghahn Books.

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  • Robles, Omar J. 2014. I'm Here: Adolescent Girls in Emergencies. Approach and Tools for Improved Response. New York: Women's Refugee Commission.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shain, Farzana. 2013. “‘The Girl Effect’: Exploring Narratives of Gendered Impacts and Opportunities in Neoliberal Development.” Sociological Research Online 18 (2): 181191. https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.2962

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Switzer, Heather, Emily Bent, and Crystal Endsley. 2016. “Precarious Politics and Girl Effects: Exploring the Limits of the Girl Gone Global.” Feminist Formations 28 (1): 3359. https://doi.org/10.1353/ff.2016.0014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tay, Alvin Kuowei, Andrew Riley, Rafiqul Islam, Courtney Welton-Mitchell, Benedicte Duchesne … and Peter Ventevogel. 2019. “The Culture, Mental Health and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Rohingya Refugees: A Systematic Review.” Epidemiology & Psychiatric Science 28 (5): 489494. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796019000192 10.1017/S2045796019000192.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Truelove, Shaun, Orit Abrahim, Chiara Altare, Stephen A. Lauer, Krya H. Grantz, Andrew S. Azman, and Paul Spiegel. 2020. “The Potential Impact of COVID-19 in Refugee Camps in Bangladesh and Beyond: A Modeling Study.” PLOS Medicine 17 (6). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003144.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2020a. “Refugee Data Finder. https://www.unhcr.org/refugee-statistics/

  • UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2020b. “UNHCR Jordan COVID-19 Response and Preparedness.” Amman: UNHCR. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/UNHCR%20Jordan%20COVID-19%20response%20-%20September%202020.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UNICEF (The United Nations International Children's Fund). 2016. “Girls Spend 160 Million More Hours than Boys Doing Household Chores Every Day.” 7 October. https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/girls-spend-160-million-more-hours-boys-doing-household-chores-everyday

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weems, Lisa. 2014. “Refuting ‘Refugee Chic’: Transnational Girl(hood)s and the Guerrilla Pedagogy of M.I.A.” Feminist Formations 26 (1): 115142.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization (WHO). 2020a. “Disability Considerations during the COVID-19 Outbreak.” https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-Disability-2020-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization (WHO). 2020b. “Emergency: Rohingya Crisis” Situation Report no. 14, 15 July. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/searo/bangladesh/bangladesh---rohingya-crisis---pdf-reports/sitreps/sitreps-2020/who-cox-s-bazar-sitrep-14.pdf?sfvrsn=745e8d53_2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WHO. 2020c. “WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard.” https://covid19.who.int.

  • Yang, Yang Claire, Courtney Boen, Karen Gerken, Ting Li, Kristen Schorpp, and Kathleen Mullan Harris. 2020. “Social Relationships and Physiological Determinants of Longevity across the Human Life Span.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (3): 578583. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1511085112

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

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