The 21st Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change in Paris (COP21), December 2015, reached a consensus to strengthen
the global response to the threat of climate change, including by “holding the increase
in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to
pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels,
recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate
change” (UN 2015: 22). The agreement has to pave the way for rules, modalities, and
procedures and all Parties have to “recognize the importance of integrated, holistic and
balanced non-market approaches being available to Parties to assist in the
implementation of their nationally determined contribution, in the context of
sustainable development and poverty eradication, in a coordinated and effective
manner, including through, inter alia, mitigation adaptation, finance, technology
transfer and capacity building, as appropriate” (UN 2015: 24). Of interest to note is
that sustainable development and poverty eradication seem to be presented as two
sides of the same coin.
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