The Wall, the Ban, and the Objectification of Women

Has “Uncle Sam” Learned any Lessons from “Typhoid Mary?”

in The International Journal of Social Quality
View More View Less
  • 1 Florida International University aothm001@fiu.edu
  • 2 Florida International University darroww@fiu.edu

Abstract

Discrimination against women and other vulnerable groups prevailed throughout the twentieth century; it persists today. This historical case study analyzes the life and times of “Typhoid Mary,” an unmarried, Irish Catholic, immigrant woman who was persecuted as an intransigent carrier of a deadly infectious disease. Being a Mexican immigrant, Muslim, or unattractive woman could condemn someone for similar mistreatment today. The failure to overcome prejudice impedes the effectiveness of public health to protect infected patients and susceptible persons from harm and to interrupt disease transmission in communities; it jeopardizes the realization of social quality. Social justice, solidarity, equal valuation, and human dignity will be achieved through resistance to the human rights violations of the Trump administration and the resilience of strong women like Mary Mallon.

Meet Mary Mallon

Judith Leavitt (1997) describes Mary Mallon as the first person to be documented as a “healthy typhoid carrier” in the United States. Mallon was born in Cookstown, Ireland, in 1869 and immigrated to New York City in 1883 (Sandoval-Peck 2016). She soon established a reputation as a good cook for upper-class families (Leavitt 1997; Sandoval-Peck 2016). From 1900 to 1906, Mallon cooked for seven families, one of them being the Warrens. In the summer of 1906, six of the Warrens developed typhoid fever, so Charles Warren hired George Soper, a sanitary engineer from the New York City Department of Health, to investigate the typhoid outbreak. Soper's investigation of the Warren cases and others among wealthy families pointed toward a single person as the likely source: Mary Mallon.

As the idea of a healthy carrier was unfamiliar in the United States then, Soper sought the support of Herman Biggs, the medical officer of New York City, to get samples of Mallon's blood, feces, and urine to prove his hypothesis that she was a healthy carrier of typhoid. Although Soper twice visited Mallon, who by then had left the Warren household, to secure the samples, he was unsuccessful, because she aggressively refused out of apprehension. Thinking a female physician might successfully prompt Mallon to cooperate, Biggs sent S. Josephine Baker, one of the few well-known female physicians at the time. Soper, accompanied by Dr. Baker, sought the samples from Mallon, but Mallon ran away. After being pursued as a criminal for hours, the health department aided by the police arrested her, and she was admitted against her will to the Willard Parker Hospital, where her feces and urine samples were obtained daily for two weeks. Despite her healthy appearance, only two samples were Bacillus typhosus negative. Consequently, Mallon was sent to Riverside Hospital for quarantinable diseases at North Brother Island (Leavitt 1997; Sandoval-Peck 2016).

Living in an isolated cottage there, Mallon had to provide weekly samples to be tested for typhoid (Leavitt 1997). As the results were a mixture of a majority of positive samples with a few negative ones, she was confirmed as an intermittent healthy carrier. Simultaneously, for three years, she sent her stool samples for testing to the private Ferguson Laboratories, and contrary to health department's results, all the Ferguson samples were typhoid negative (Bartoletti 2015; Sandoval-Peck 2016). Being unconvinced in the first place that she was a carrier, Mallon's belief in her innocence was reinforced by the Ferguson results (Kraut 1995; Leavitt 1997). Despite furnishing the Fergusson results to support her case in a writ of habeas corpus against the Department of Health, the judge refused to set her free (Leavitt 1997; Sandoval-Peck 2016). One year later, Dr. Ernst J. Lederle, the new health commissioner, discharged Mallon under the condition that she quit working as a cook and report to the Department of Health every three months. Mallon started a new but less satisfying career as a laundress and dropped out of sight after a year (Sandoval-Peck 2016). Five years after her discharge, a new typhoid outbreak of 25 cases occurred in the Sloane Hospital for Women in 1915. Investigators discovered the hospital's cook was, in fact, Mary Mallon, who worked under the fake name of Mary Brown (Leavitt 1997; Sandoval-Peck 2016). She was arrested and quarantined for life at North Brother Island.

On North Brother Island, Mary Mallon worked in a laboratory and passed time knitting and reading until a stroke left her bedridden in 1932 (Leavitt 1997). Six years later, she died of pneumonia at Riverside Hospital. Her funeral was attended by nine anonymous people (Bourdain 2010; Kraut 1995). Although the total number of people who contracted typhoid from Mallon is uncertain, it is assumed that she infected about 50, among whom 3 died because of typhoid infection (Kraut 1995; Sandoval-Peck 2016). The aims of this article are to review the facts in the case of Mary Mallon to assess how she and other vulnerable members of American society have been treated by public health authorities, portrayed by mass media, and integrated into or banished from American communities, and what the benefits and costs of prejudicial attitudes, ostracism, and incarceration might be.

Portraying Mary Mallon

On 1 April 1907, The Evening World (1907) described Mary Mallon as “the most dangerous woman in the world… [who] exhales a cloud of dreaded bacilli at every breath.” Another article, “Typhoid Mary—Most Harmless and Yet the Most Dangerous Woman in America,” published on 20 June 1909, used the nickname Typhoid Mary, which prompted the name to go viral (see also Kraut 1995; Sandoval-Peck 2016). Mallon had become so notorious that an article published on 17 March 1911, four years after her first arrest, referred to her as “the well-known New York case” (Public Health Reports 1911). It was expected that the reader would recognize the reference.

When Mallon was rearrested in 1915, the newspapers showed her less mercy and announced she was “back to her old tricks” (New York Tribune 1918; Sandoval-Peck 2016) and had “homicidal tendencies” (Leavitt 1997; Sandoval-Peck 2016). In “Witch in N.Y.,” published in the Tacoma Times on 6 April 1915, K. W. Payne (1915) described Mallon's story as “more strange than the annals of Salem witchcraft.” A beastly narrative published in the Richmond-Times Dispatch (Huber 1915) described Mallon as “dropping … death into the cooking vessels,” which was later sketched in many magazines and newspapers as a cook shedding skulls from her hands into the food she was cooking. Although some newspapers portrayed Mallon more considerately and maintained she was down on her luck but not an evil soul, their more flattering portrayals failed to save Mallon from her inevitable fate (Sandoval-Peck 2016).

Satiric poems such as “The Germ-Carrier,” the short story “The Bacteriological Detective,” and the textbook Science in Our Social Life (Hunter and Whitman 1935), were published in 1909, 1910, and 1935, respectively (Leavitt 1997; Sandoval-Peck 2016). When Mallon died in 1938, although some journals such as the American Journal of Public Health and some scientists such as Soper (1907) published sympathetic articles about her, most newspapers maintained their position of blaming Mallon for her misdeeds and reasoned her sentence resulted from willful noncompliance. Claire Sandoval-Peck (2016) reviewed some of Mallon's representations in recent resources. The presence of the term Typhoid Mary in textbooks, novels, children's books, plays, documentaries, metal bands, TV medical drama, and movies is intriguing. Even in the twenty-first century, most of the references, ranging from the Marvel Comics supervillain Bloody Mary (aka Typhoid Mary), to a malicious spirit who executes people in the horror movie Paranormal Asylum: The Revenge of Typhoid Mary, to the advanced arm in the famous video game Call of Duty, characterize Mallon with wickedness. With stereotyping mixed with exaggeration, the image of Typhoid Mary provided juicy material for media that thrives on emotionally arousing the public.

Portraying Other Typhoid Carriers

Although Mary Mallon was the first proven healthy typhoid carrier in the United States, she was one of many. Fredrick Moersch, Tony Labella, and Alphonse Cotils were identified as carriers in 1915, 1922, and 1924, respectively, and all worked in the food industry. Handling ice cream, Moersch was responsible for two outbreaks with a total of 119 infections and several deaths. Labella was responsible for about 122 infections and five deaths in New York and New Jersey. Both men infected more people than Mallon did and were informed by the Department of Heatlth about their status before causing a second outbreak, just as Mallon was.

Concerning their cooperation with authorities, none of the three men were better than Mallon. After infecting 59 people with typhoid in 1915, Moersch agreed to leave the ice cream industry and start working as a plumber; however, the 1928 outbreak with 60 people infected from the ice cream he made proved he violated his agreement with the Department of Heatlth. After causing the first outbreak with 87 infections and two deaths, Labella escaped New York and was found in New Jersey causing the second outbreak with 35 infections and three deaths. The Department of Health banned Cotils, a baker and restaurant owner, from working in his restaurant after confirming he was a typhoid carrier; however, he breached his agreement as well. None of the three men was quarantined from the first outbreak, as was the Irish immigrant, a woman named Mary Mallon (Leavitt 1997).

In their trials that took place while Mallon was quarantined, Cotils agreed to manage his business by phone, and Labella and Moersch were sent to the North Brother Island for a while and were placed on the New York typhoid carriers list; however, they were not isolated for life like Mallon, because they were not “sick” (Leavitt 1997). The three men had not been disgraced by either the health officials’ publications or press. Unlike the case with Mallon, officials did not comment on their cleanliness, literacy, or appearance, and the media did not stigmatize their race, ethnicity, or gender. Moreover, some articles on other healthy carriers, such as that on Cotils published in the New York Times (1924) on 14 March 1924, referred to Mallon as the classic exemplar of the harmful typhoid carrier.

Theories about Mary Mallon's Unfair Treatment

The historians Leavitt (1997) and Sandoval-Peck (2016) cite various reasons for Mallon's harsh treatment, such as being (1) the first carrier case, (2) a less-privileged, single female with a male partner in a predominantly male world, (3) a Catholic in a Protestant country, (4) an immigrant in a pro-nativism period, and (5) Irish. Mallon displayed pride and stubbornness, which were neither expected nor appreciated from those of her gender and class. Dr. Baker's narrative about Mallon described her as the “clean, neat, obviously self-respecting Irish woman” who nonetheless had a “blind, panicky distrust of doctors that comes with being uneducated” (Leavitt 1997, p.115). Her reference to the Irish as “wholly lacking in any ambition and dirty to an unbelievable degree” (Sandoval-Peck 2016, p.17; Leavitt 1997, p.114) reveals the bigotry against Irish immigrants at that time (Sandoval-Peck 2016, Gabaccia 1994; Leavitt 1997).

Mallon's outburst when questioned about her country of origin illustrates her fear that her nationality was the reason behind the accusation. In this regard, she responded, “So that's it. I might have known. You think all immigrants are trash, don't you? Riffraff. You think we stink—that's why you call me dirty … stinking transients. We're supposed to pee on the stairs, aren't we, and drink, and kill” (Leavitt 1997, p.216). Her atypical reaction as a woman, who was expected to be sweet and subordinate, influenced her descriptions. Soper's description of Mallon as having a “distinctly masculine character” ranged from her figure to her handwriting (Sandoval-Peck 2016). In a prejudicial society, Mary Mallon was a perfect fit to be discriminated against with regard to gender, religion, profession, social class, and ethnicity (Leavitt 1997; Sandoval-Peck 2016).

Has Uncle Sam Learned Any Lessons from the Case of Mary Mallon?

The case of Marry Mallon was revealed more than a hundred years ago, but the image of Typhoid Mary and discrimination against people just like her endures.

Women

Considerable attention was placed on Mary Mallon's physique when she was described to the public. She was characterized as “a tall Irish woman of about forty,” and “a little too heavy” (Sandoval-Peck 2016). Judgments on women's appearance are continuously seen in contemporary media. Comments on women's body weight, as with Mallon, are prevalent today (Farrell 2011). Obese women now face bigger challenges than a century ago, and being “fat” is correlated with being less “feminine.” The “before and after” photos of celebrities who have lost weight, gained weight, or undergone cosmetic surgeries are all over social media platforms. Moreover, perceptions of women's limited power and expected demeanor are highly prejudiced. The Me Too movement launched a revolution in 2017 when women stepped out of the shadows to report more than 30 high-profile men in power who had sexually harassed or abused them (Almukhtar et al. 2018). Some allegations dated back several decades to when the victims were young and highly vulnerable. If Mary Mallon were diagnosed with typhoid and portrayed as an obese, unattractive, and strident immigrant in 2019, would she be treated differently than a physically fit, gorgeous, “all-American” woman with a strong sense of self? Would her gender and appearance have influenced her treatment in the twenty-first century?

Immigrants

In Silent Travelers: Germs, Genes, and the Immigrant Menace, Alan Kraut (1995) discusses how some anti-Irish journalists such as Hezekiah Niles claimed the Irish were taking jobs away from US-born citizens in the nineteenth century. Similar allegations are heard today in the media about Mexicans. In July 2015, Donald Trump characterized Mexicans as follows: “They're taking our jobs. … They're taking our money. They're killing us” (Schreckinger 2015). Kraut also discusses how American society in the nineteenth century perceived Irish immigrants as less moral, and hence, their diseases resulted from their drinking habits and sins. In June 2015, Trump said: “When Mexico sends its people, they're not sending their best. They're not sending you. … They're sending people that have lots of problems, and they're bringing those problems to us. They're bringing drugs. They're bringing crime. They're rapists. And some, I assume, are good people” (Ye Hee Lee 2015). In America with Jorge Ramos (Ramos 2015), Ann Coulter, a conservative writer and commentator, said: “I have a little tip. If you don't want to be killed by ISIS, don't go to Syria. If you don't want to be killed by a Mexican, there's nothing I can tell you.” These are just a few examples of the strong anti-Mexican sentiment sweeping twenty-first-century media.

A study on the influence of positive and negative media messages on perceptions toward Mexican undocumented immigrants living in the United States exposed participants to a neutral media message and then randomly exposed them to a second media message that was neutral, positive, or negative (Lopez Moreno 2007). Comparing the three groups, the one exposed to a negative message had the most significant changes in the participants’ views. Unlike the negative messages, neither neutral nor positive messages changed perceptions toward undocumented Mexican immigrants. In a recent incident, Bahena Rivera, an undocumented immigrant, was arrested in August 2018 for the alleged death of Mollie Tibbetts, a 20-year-old University of Iowa student (Levenson et al. 2018). This sad incident provoked Trump and other high officials to attack US immigration laws. At a political rally in Charleston, West Virginia, the US president said: “You heard about today with the illegal alien coming in very sadly from Mexico … and you saw what happened to that incredible, beautiful, young woman” (Simon 2018).

Such a discriminatory narrative might provoke feelings of resentment and exclusion in a predominantly Anglo-American society for a Mexican American minority that seeks to live in a place of peace, prosperity, and justice for all. New York Times reporter and author of the article “The Ethics of Hunting Down Patient Zero” (McNeil 2016) Donald G. McNeil Jr. commented on “super-spreaders” of disease today compared to the times of Mary Mallon:

Things are different now. One is there is patient privacy, but I think this instinct is probably always there … I certainly see it in stories when I write about a disease coming to the United States; people always want to know who brought it here and very quickly ask this question: “What immigrant brought this disease to this country?”… So, yeah, … I think the racist instinct is definitely still there. (Interview, Miami, February 23, 2018)

Imagine the 1907 Mary Mallon as the 2019 Maria Miguel, a mythical Mexican immigrant woman who is responsible for a new epidemic or some other negatively charged phenomenon: would you expect her to be fairly treated by the authorities or media?

Religious Freedom

During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Protestantism was regarded as the religion that fit the “cultural matrix” and preserved political freedom in Western societies (Kraut 1995). Other religions, especially Catholicism and Judaism, for various social, political, and theological reasons, were perceived as dangerous threats that might unravel the social fabric (Higham 2002). An article published in 1915 described Mallon as racing with the “wandering Jew in scattering destruction in her path” (Leavitt 1997). Kraut (1995) reveals in even greater detail the prejudice against persons of varying ethnic backgrounds during the Golden Age and the decades that followed. Today, Muslims are treated in much the same way. In 2017, Trump banned people, including refugees, from seven Muslim-majority countries from entering the United States (BBC 2017). He wants to build walls, close borders, and secure the United States from Muslim outsiders, because, according to his way of thinking, “Islam hates us” (Patel and Levinson-Waldman 2017). Even high officials’ statements and media portrayals show Muslims as barbaric, venomous, and a real danger to modern American society (Shear and Goldman 2017). Michael Flynn, Trump's former national security adviser, said Islam is a “vicious cancer inside the body of 1.7 billion people” that must be “excised” (Patel and Levinson-Waldman 2017).

A study on the coverage of the terrorist attacks in the United States between 2011 and 2015 by CNN.com and LexisNexis Academic reveals that if the perpetrator is Muslim, the news will get 449 percent more media attention than other perpetrators’ attacks (Kearns et al. 2019). The following example reveals the difference in the president's reactions to two violent attacks just one month apart. When a white man committed a mass shooting and killed 58 people in Las Vegas on 1 October 2017, Trump said, “The wires were crossed pretty badly in his brain. Extremely badly in his brain. And it's a very sad event,” and refused to describe it as a terrorist attack. Conversely, when an Uzbek caused eight casualties and a dozen injuries, Trump tweeted, “In NYC, looks like another attack by a very sick and deranged person … NOT IN THE U.S.A!” and described the perpetrator as an “animal” (Cillizza 2017). This double standard reveals that if a white, US-born perpetrator is involved, then the mental status is to be blamed, but if the perpetrator is a Muslim immigrant, then the dogma of Islam is to be blamed.

Movies and TV dramas often portray Muslims and Arabs as barbaric terrorists whom white American heroes defeat (Kearns et al. 2019). As media coverage influence the public perception (Lopez Moreno 2007), Muslims have become associated with violence and terrorism (Kearns et al. 2019). As a consequence, hate crimes against them reached 196 incidents in 2015, which is a 78.2 percent increase from 2014, and considered a dramatic, new post-2001 record (CSHE 2016). Degrading treatment invokes a sense of bitterness, antipathy, and rejection among the Muslim-American minority. Based on the current perceptions of Muslims, imagine the 1907 Mary Mallon is a 2019 Mariam Mohammed, a Muslim refugee woman who is believed to be responsible for a disease outbreak or an adverse incident. Wouldn't you expect to hear bioterrorism hypotheses and conspiracy theories about this Muslim refugee's motives? Do you expect her to get fair treatment equal to a native-born, non-Muslim, “appealing” Anglo-American?

Social Quality in Mary Mallon's and Donald Trump's America

Social quality has been defined as “the extent to which citizens are able to participate in the social and economic life of their communities under conditions which enhance their well-being and individual potential” (Beck et al. 1998: 3). Constantly changing processes through which individuals realize themselves as interacting social beings constitute the essence of “the social” (Lin et al. 2009). Through interaction with others, humans realize their collective identities. Self-realization depends on social recognition. Participation in social relations and personal development are critical features of social quality theory. To achieve an acceptable level of social quality, a social system must establish four conditions (Beck et al. 2012).

First, members of a decent society must be protected from poverty and other kinds of material deprivation by having assurances of socioeconomic security. Second, they must be assured of social inclusion in—or minimal levels of social exclusion from—major social and economic institutions. Third, people should be able to subsist in communities characterized by social cohesion. Social cohesion is the glue that holds communities together. It is vital for social development and for self-realization. Fourth, people must be autonomous and empowered to be able to participate fully in social life. Empowerment allows for a range of choices, for personal growth, and for social change. It enables members of a social system to determine their futures and to take full advantage of every opportunity to live a long and healthy life (Walker and Van der Maesen 2004).

A fundamental problem every society must confront is the replacement of its members, either through the birth of new generations or through immigration. Mary Mallon was a teenage, poorly educated, legal immigrant from Ireland in an era when the United States needed low-paid factory workers, coal miners, and domestic servants. Nevertheless, many Americans who were already established in the New World felt threatened by the presence of foreigners with different social backgrounds and cultural habits (Gjelten 2015). Immigrants were popularly perceived to be sources of political dissent, social disruption, and deadly disease. Mallon was made to fit the stereotype in the early twentieth century. “Maria Miguel,” “Mariam Mohammed,” and other immigrants run the same risk in Trump's twenty-first century America (Krugman 2019).

Donald Trump, the forty-fifth president of the United States, has made legal immigration a major policy concern of his administration. He believes a nation-state should pick and choose those who are permitted to become citizens (Gjelten 2018). He has identified by name and honored four families of those slain by “illegal immigrants.” He has expressed his disdain for those who live in “shithole countries” and want to enter the country without a visa and proper documentation. He has portrayed the United States as a “dumping ground” for drug dealers, criminals, rapists, and “animals” who are less than human. These harsh sentiments harken back to the era when a poorly educated cook from Ireland diagnosed with an asymptomatic infectious disease was transformed by the media into the murderous “Typhoid Mary.” A nation-state has a right and an obligation to pass and enforce laws to control population density and limit growth, but it should develop, pass, and enforce its statutes, policies, and procedures with respect to the normative factors of social justice, solidarity, equal value, and human dignity (Van der Maesen 2017).

Normative Factors

Social quality has an ideological dimension (Walker and Van der Maesen 2004). Self-realization could result in autonomy or egocentrism. Collective identities could be closed or authoritarian instead of open and liberating. Ethical standards are required to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable outcomes. The condition of socioeconomic security calls for a norm of social justice; inclusion requires the recognition of rights for all citizens; cohesion implies an understanding and acceptance of a mutually dependent moral contract and solidarity; empowerment demands equity in life chances. Social quality concerns the dignity and respect of persons as social beings. A test for social quality often depends on how the most vulnerable and susceptible to misfortune are treated (Van der Maesen 2013).

The case of Mary Mallon and her life sentence of isolation on North Brother Island surrounded by hospitalized tuberculosis patients, nurses, and medical personnel raises questions about her treatment by governmental authorities in early twentieth-century America. Was this hardworking, unmarried, Roman Catholic, immigrant woman treated fairly? Were her civil rights protected by George Soper, Dr. Josephine Baker, and other public officials? Was she guaranteed the same life chances as members of the wealthy Warren family residing in a large house in Oyster Bay? Did everyone treat her with dignity and respect? The way members of a society treat one another reveals their attitudes, beliefs, and values.

Trump (2019) spoke about his personal beliefs and American values when he revealed his “modernized plan for immigration” on 16 May 2019. Speaking in the Rose Garden on “a very beautiful spring day,” the president unveiled “our plan to create a fair, modern, and lawful system of immigration for the United States.” The proposal “builds upon our nation's rich history of immigration,” he declared, “while strengthening the bonds of citizenship that bind us together as a national family. Throughout our history, we have proudly welcomed newcomers to our shores. Out of many people, from many places, we have forged one people and one nation under God, and we're very proud of it.” After applause, Trump continued, “Our policies have turbo-charged our economy. Now, we must implement an immigration system that will allow our citizens to prosper for generations to come.”

Following this introduction, Trump offered a few details: “Investment in technology will ensure we can scan 100 percent of everything coming through, curbing the flow of drugs and contraband, while speeding up legal trade and commerce.” To address flaws in the legal system that “encourage criminal organizations to smuggle children across the border,” the Trump administration's “plan will change the law to stop the flood of child smuggling and to humanely reunite unaccompanied children with their families back home.” To “restore the integrity of our broken asylum system,” Trump proposed expediting “relief for legitimate asylum seekers by screening out the meritless claims.” Criminals will be deported, communities will be kept safe, and, according to Trump, “the borders will finally be fully and totally secured.”

The “big, beautiful, and bold plan,” presented to a cheering audience in the Rose Garden, “includes a sweeping modernization of our dysfunctional legal immigration process.” They are told, “The system will finally be fair, transparent, and promote equality and opportunity for all.” Currently, “We discriminate against genius. We discriminate against brilliance.” Discrimination against highly skilled, higher-wage, and financially self-sufficient workers who don't compete with our “striving,” “most vulnerable” Americans will terminate with the passage of laws that bring this travesty of injustice to an end, according to the plan for a “Build-America visa,” “points-based,” and “modern” immigration system proposed by Trump. “Finally, to promote integration, assimilation, and national unity, future immigrants will be required to learn English and to pass a civics exam prior to admission. Through these steps, we will deliver an immigration system that respects, and even strengthens, our culture, our traditions, and our values.”

The Statue of Liberty greeted Mary Mallon when she arrived as a 14-year-old Irish immigrant in New York Harbor in 1883 or 1884. Words from the sonnet “The New Colossus,” written by Emma Lazarus (2002) around the same time Mallon arrived, later appeared on a plaque nearby, “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.” This “mighty woman with a torch,” the “Mother of Exiles,” went on to say with her “silent lips” in the poem: “The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!” The American tradition of welcoming “the wretched refuse,” “the homeless,” and “tempest-tossed” at her “golden door” is transformed in the Trump administration's “modernized” version to recruiting the privileged, the affluent, and the extraordinarily gifted who will, if they can pass the civics exam, “Make America Great Again.”

Constitutional Factors

Cognitive and emotional aspects of social quality theory come into play when analyzing Donald Trump's proposal for immigration reform. His political base of Make America Great Again voters is very concerned about personal security, social recognition, social responsiveness, and personal capacities in what appears to be a rapidly changing world of modernization, globalization, and social change (Berting 2012). Conservative ideology, as interpreted by popular talk show host Rush Limbaugh, and populist propaganda, as presented by Sean Hannity and right-wing political commentators on Fox News, offer comforting messages to those Americans who feel passed over and left out. The voiceless in America—often older, less well-educated, blue-collar workers who have lost their jobs, their opportunities, and their dignity—want to cry out and be heard, but feel no one, except maybe Limbaugh, Hannity, and Trump, is willing to listen and respond to their concerns. Trump wants them to know he will take care of them and has a plan (Krugman 2018).

One problem with Trump's modernized plan for immigration is its focus on the immediate economic needs of the United States and failure to consider the economic and other needs of those who are flocking to its southern border (Castaneda et al. 2015). The United States may offer poor jobs for “illegal aliens” and “asylum seekers,” but they can find work, some degree of safety, and more assurances of legal protection in the country north of the border than they were able to find in the country they are fleeing. Dictatorships, corruption, and the failure to establish and maintain democratic institutions in countries of the Caribbean and south of the US border are the main reason why their frustrated and desperate citizens are leaving to find better lives elsewhere. Nothing in the Trump administration's plan to “create an immigration system to make America safer, and stronger, and greater than ever before” appears to deal with the fundamental causes of emigration.

Members of the Democratic Party and skeptical immigration advocates have raised objections to a Republican Party immigration plan that fails to address what to do with the 11 million undocumented persons already living in the United States (Karni 2019). Lisa Koop of the National Immigrant Justice Center and a member of the Mennonite religious community criticized portions of the Trump proposal by pointing out, “A plan that forces families apart, limits access to asylum and other humanitarian relief, and doesn't contemplate a path to citizenship for DACA [Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals] recipients and other undocumented community members is clearly a political stunt intended to posture rather than problem-solve” (Shear 2019). While some members of the Republican Party have expressed support for the president's plan to modernize immigration policies and preferences, the proposed legislative package prepared by his son-in-law Jared Kushner and senior adviser Stephen Miller appears to be DOA.

The US Public Health Service traces its origins to 1798 and to the examination of people and cargo aboard vessels arriving from foreign ports for the presence of pests and pestilence (Pearce 2009). The Public Health Service continues to monitor visitors and immigrants to the United States for signs of infectious disease to protect, promote, and advance the health and safety of the American people. It depends on legislation and annual appropriations from Congress and effective working relationships with states, territories, foreign governments, and international agencies and organizations to carry out its responsibilities (Darrow 2015). As part of the executive branch, the Public Health Service follows the directives of the president and presidential appointees. Appropriate policies and regulations governing foreign visitors and immigrants, sufficient resources, and well-trained personnel are essential.

Social quality architecture and a social quality approach to public health might serve to resolve the current stalemate in the United States regarding immigration reform (Van der Maesen and Nijhuis 2000). A dialogue that results in an open and non-polemical discussion of principles, values, and acceptable outcomes might start the process of understanding and negotiation. Although many disagree about the best solution, few can dispute the fact that the current system is broken and in need of repair. Too many people are unnecessarily suffering and dying under current conditions. An examination of conditional, normative, and constitutional factors among reasonable people who want to solve the difficult problem of immigration could be the first step in reaching a compromise. If we want to sustain social quality, we should look over and above the socioeconomic security element and consider the other fundamental causes, including social inclusion (Holman and Walker 2017).

Implications

The unfortunate story of Mary Mallon and comparable situations we witness in our lifetimes should alarm us to a dangerous tendency. We should learn from historical precedents. If we repeat the same mistakes over and over again, then shame on us, because we have not learned our lessons from earlier generations. Patients with life-threatening diseases continue to suffer from social ostracism unnecessarily, members of communities susceptible to infectious diseases continue to be put needlessly at risk, and all of us must pay the price of a callous, costly, and ineffective system of public health.

Protecting Patients

A major responsibility of public health authorities is to protect the civil rights and defend the dignity of patients who have been diagnosed with a life-threatening disease. They deserve the best medical care that can be offered to them. In return, public health authorities should expect patients to help them protect the lives and safety of others who might be at risk. If those expectations are not met, then public health authorities are obliged to determine why, and to seek alternative means of gaining their support and cooperation. A negotiation process should lead to a resolution that satisfies both parties by being reasonable, appropriate, and fair, and not necessarily punitive. Problems with the treatment of the recalcitrant Mary Mallon were both in severity and in selectivity: Why was she—and not others who were known to have transmitted fatal infectious diseases after being warned of the potential consequences of their behaviors—treated so harshly? What did government officials do to help Mallon find another rewarding line of work when they prohibited her from ever cooking again? And, we must ask, why do public health authorities continue to identify and prosecute a handful of miscreants while others who engage in exactly the same or very similar behaviors are ignored or excused with milder or no sanctions?

Protecting Susceptible Members of Communities

Public health authorities have a major responsibility to protect susceptible members of communities under their jurisdiction from harm. They should provide accurate and helpful information and effective health education to prevent the occurrence of disease, promote the use of safe and efficacious vaccines, and attempt to interrupt the transmission of infectious diseases through appropriate means that respect the rights and privileges of all residents. Police power is a method that is often used to stop the spread of contagious diseases, but quarantine and other extreme measures that deprive certain persons of their rights have limitations and can lead to untoward consequences. How many cases of typhoid were prevented by the New York City Department of Health while Mary Mallon was kept in her cottage on North Brother Island for more than 20 years? Was New York any safer while Fredrick Moersch, Tony Labella, Alphonse Cotils, and all the other carriers of typhoid were free to come and go as they pleased? And, we must ask, what alternatives might be more effective in protecting the civil rights of patients and preventing the spread of disease to others than identifying, shaming, and ostracizing one or two people who have contracted an infectious disease and, indeed, have spread it to others?

Protecting Communities

A major responsibility of government officials expected to protect the health and safety of community residents is to assure them that decisions are being made and carried out with honesty, integrity, and transparency. Modern public health has an obligation to improve social conditions that stimulate health, prevent social conditions that threaten health, and neutralize existing social conditions that cause ill health (Van der Maesen and Nijhuis 2000), and to carry out its functions in a way that respects a diversity of values, beliefs, and customs. Too often, a “surgeon general” or some other bureaucrat with a military title will declare “a public health emergency” and demand “bold action” to stop a threat without adequately informing the public of the nature of the threat, proper precautions, and the chances that the proposed interventions will succeed.

Just how much does a community benefit from public health laws, regulations, and declarations of emergency that are not uniformly—but only selectively—enforced? What are the most effective and efficient ways to interrupt disease transmission in a community, and who should decide what disease control measures are best for a community: a political appointee with a military title or a standing committee of thoughtful community representatives? And, we must ask, if a community consists of differences of opinion about the best way to solve a problem that could arise, then why should the expert opinion of a medical doctor who serves at the pleasure of the president or a governor always prevail when the issue concerns the public's health?

Protecting All of Us

From everything that is happening and being reported today, we find Trump administration policies and practices are unfairly excluding racial and ethnic minority groups from full participation in social life. They are serving to further polarize a fractured society. Inequality and exclusion tears at the social fabric, adversely affecting social cohesion and solidarity in communities that desire unity and long for social quality. Ethical principles and moral values are repeatedly being threatened in the current political environment of divisiveness and distrust. Democratic rule and economic prosperity are at grave risk in societies that cannot successfully cope with hatred, bigotry, and injustice (Van der Maesen 2018). The lesson of Mary Mallon and others like her will not be learned until Maria Miguel, Mariam Mohammed, and others like them achieve social justice, solidarity with others like them who once arrived at ports of entry as immigrants, equal valuation, and the human dignity that they and all others like them and all of us deserve.

Epilogue

The history of Mary Mallon has been recounted to demonstrate that maltreatment of infected persons and their exclusion from social interactions do not serve the best interests of public health. On the contrary, stigmatization, discrimination, and isolation puts vulnerable groups as well as the population at large at risk for the continuing transmission of infectious diseases. This striking public health case, which took place more than a century ago, served as a catalyst for discussing the adverse effects of prejudice and the hatred of “foreigners,” as well as other discriminated groups in the United States. Considered from a social quality perspective, the impact is equal to trampling underfoot almost all conditional and subjective factors, as well as normative principles. Instead of benefitting the safety, health, and social quality of our diverse communities, it gives rise to inappropriate actions, conflict, violence, and disruptions of social well-being. From a public health perspective, much more must be done to understand the adverse effects of quarantining presumably “contagious” patients. The prevailing dominant orientation of modern health care on technological medical approaches, for example, leaves little room (or means) for investments in public health capacity, communication, and dialogue with communities about important health issues. Participative approaches to build informed patient, citizen, and community groups certainly would have a much more beneficial impact than expert-based authoritarian approaches, leading to coercion and ostracism, as experienced by Mallon.

In the same vein, much more must be done to catalog the impact of maltreatment, discrimination, and segregation of immigrant, religious, and other minority groups. Analyses should consider upstream factors such as the reasons for migration, as well its consequences, and the adverse effects migration imposes on the men, women, and children involved, as well as its overall effects on societies of origin, societies of destination, and all societies in between. Our review of the history of Typhoid Mary in a historical and contemporary perspective is obviously not meant to provide complete scientific evidence for the societal impact of segregation. It is primarily intended to learn lessons from the past and to inspire more in-depth discussion on the wider societal implications of authoritarian coercive strategies of immigration policies and approaches. Public health here offers as an interesting case. Social quality theory was shown to be a valuable heuristic framework to elaborate our analysis and considerations. It could similarly be functional and valuable for the comprehensive understanding and moral interpretation of immigration issues, which migrants, residents, and governments are facing in many corners of the world today.

References

  • Almukhtar, S., M. Gold, and L. Buchanan. 2018. “After Weinstein: 71 Men Accused of Sexual Misconduct and Their Fall From Power.” New York Times, updated 8 February.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartoletti, S. C. 2015. Terrible Typhoid Mary: A True Story of the Deadliest Cook in America. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

  • BBC. 2017. “Trump's Executive Order: Who Does Travel Ban Affect?10 February.

    • Export Citation
  • Beck, W., L. J. G. van der Maesen, and A Walker, eds. 1998. The Social Quality of Europe. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.

  • Beck, W., L. J. G. van der Maesen, and A. Walker. 2012. “Theoretical Foundations.” In Social Quality: From Theory to Indicators, ed. L. J. G. van der Maesen and A. Walker, 4469. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berting, J. 2012. “The Social Quality Approach in a Pluralist World.” International Journal of Social Quality 2 (1): 89107.

  • Bourdain, A. 2010. Typhoid Mary: An Urban Historical. London: Bloomsbury.

  • Castaneda, H., S. M. Holmes, D. S. Madrigal, M-E. D. Young, N. Beyeler, and J. Quesada. 2015. “Immigration as a Social Determinant of Health.” Annual Review of Public Health 36: 375392. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cillizza, C. 2017. “The Stunning Difference between Trump's Reaction to the Las Vegas Shooting and the NYC Attack.” CNN, 1 November.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CSHE (Center for the Study of Hate & Extremism). 2016. Special Status Report: Hate Crimes in the United States—20 State Compilation of Official Data. San Bernadino: California State University, San Bernadino.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Darrow, W. W. 2015. “The Decline and Disorganization of Public Health in the United States: Social Implications.” International Journal of Social Quality 6 (2): 2946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evening World. 1907. “Woman ‘Typhoid Factory’ Held as Prisoner.” 1 April.

    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A. E. 2011. Fat Shame: Stigma and the Fat Body in American Culture. New York: New York University Press.

  • Gabaccia, D. R. 1994. From the Other Side: Women, Gender, and Immigrant Life in the U.S., 1820–1990. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gjelten, T. 2015. A Nation of Nations: A Great American Immigration Story. New York: Simon & Shuster.

  • Gjelten, T. 2018. “Donald Trump and a Century-Old Argument About Who's Allowed in America.” The Atlantic, 13 January.

  • Higham, J. 2002. Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860–1925. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

  • Holman, D., and A. Walker. 2017. “Social Quality and Health: Examining Individual and Neighbourhood Contextual Effects Using a Multilevel Modelling Approach.” Social Indicators Research 138 (1): 245270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-017-1640-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huber, J. B. 1915. “‘Microbe Carriers’ – The Newly Discovered Danger to Everybody's Health – and No Remedy for It.” Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11 July.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunter, G. W., and W. G. Whitman. 1935. Science in Our Social Life. New York: American Book Company.

  • Karni, A. 2019. “Cool Reception for a Plan on Immigration.” New York Times, 17 May, A12.

  • Kearns, E. M., A. E. Betus, and A. F. Lemieux. 2019. “Why Do Some Terrorist Attacks Receive More Media Attention Than Others?Justice Quarterly 36 (6): 9851022 https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2018.1524507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kraut, A. M. 1995. Silent Travelers: Germs, Genes, and the Immigrant Menace. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

  • Krugman, P. 2018. “Health Care, Hatred and Lies.” New York Times, 26 October, A25

  • Krugman, P. 2019. “Why Isn't Trump A Real Populist?New York Times, 19 June, A22.

  • Lazarus, E. (1883) 2002. “The New Colossus.” In Emma Lazarus: Selected Poems and Other Writings, ed. G. Eiselein, 233. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leavitt, J. W. 1997. Typhoid Mary: Captive to the Public's Health. Boston: Beacon Press.

  • Levenson, E., S. Said, and S. Almasy. 2018. “Man Leads Police to Body, Faces Murder Charge in Mollie Tibbetts Case.” CNN, 22 August.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, K., P. Ward, and L. J. G. van der Maesen. 2009. “Social Quality Theory in Perspective.” Development and Society 38 (2): 201208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopez Moreno, J. H. 2007. “Media Influence on Perceptions toward Mexican Undocumented Immigrants Living in the United States.” PhD diss., Alliant International University.

    • Export Citation
  • McNeil, D. G. Jr. 2016. “The Ethics of Hunting Down Patient Zero.” New York Times, 30 October.

  • New York Times. 1924. “Baker, Warned as Typhoid Carrier, in Court As Public Menace for Making Shortcake.” 14 March.

    • Export Citation
  • New York Tribune. 1918. “On the Trail of Typhoid Mary.” 28 July.

    • Export Citation
  • Patel, F., and R. Levinson-Waldman. 2017. “The Islamophobic Administration.” Brennan Center for Justice, 19 April.

    • Export Citation
  • Payne, K. W. 1915. “Witch in N.Y.” Tacoma Times, 6 April.

  • Pearce, F. 2009. “Pests and Pestilence.” Foreign Policy, 3 November.

  • Public Health Reports. 1911. Public Health Reports 26 (11): 313360. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1999084.

  • Ramos, J. 2015. “Jorge Ramos Spars with Ann Coulter Over Her Comparison of Immigrants to ISIS.” America with George Ramos, 26 May. https://fusion.net/video/139852/jorge-ramos-ann-coulter-interview.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sandoval-Peck, C. 2016. “From ‘Destroying Angel’ to ‘The Most Dangerous Woman in America’: A Study of Mary Mallon's Depiction in Popular Culture.” BA thesis, University of Washington Tacoma.

    • Export Citation
  • Schreckinger, B. 2015. “Donald Trump Storms Phoenix Arizona Speech Draws Protesters and Thousands of Cheering Supporters.” Politico, 11 July.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shear, M. D. 2019. “Trump's Plan Upends Rules on Migration.” New York Times, 16 May, A1.

  • Shear, M. D., and A. Goldman. 2017. “Micheal Flynn Pleads Guilty to Lying to the F.B.I. and Will Cooperate with Russia Inquiry.” New York Times, 1 December.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simon, D. 2018. “Politicians Blame Immigration Laws for Mollie Tibbetts’ Fate.” CNN, 22 August.

  • Soper, G. 1907. “The Work of a Chronic Typhoid Germ Distributor.” Journal of the American Medical Association 48 (24): 20192022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1907.25220500025002d

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trump, D. 2019. “Remarks by President Trump on Modernizing Our Immigration System for a Stronger America.” White House, 16 May. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-modernizing-immigration-system-stronger-america.

    • Export Citation
  • Van der Maesen, L. J. G. 2013. “Analyzing Societal Circumstances, Sustainability and Sustainable Urban Development: New Theoretical and Methodological Challenges for Social Quality Indicators.” International Journal of Social Quality 3 (1): 82105 doi:10.3167/IJSQ.2013.030106

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Maesen, L. J. G. 2017. “Editorial: The Rule of Law—A Heuristic Perspective?International Journal of Social Quality 7 (2): vxvi. https://doi.org/10.3167/IJSQ.2017.070201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Maesen, L. J. G. 2018. “Editorial: The Evolution of 20 Years of Social Quality Thinking.” International Journal of Social Quality 8 (1): vxxiii. https://doi.org/10.3167/IJSQ.2018.080101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Maesen, L. J. G., and H. G. J. Nijhuis. 2000. “Continuing the Debate on the Philosophy of Modern Public Health: Social Quality as a Point of Reference.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 54 (2): 134142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, A. C., and L. J. G. van der Maesen. 2004. “Social Quality and Quality of Life.” In Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemporary World, ed. W. Glatzer, S. von Below, and M. Stoffregen, 1331. Boston: Academic Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ye Hee Lee, M. 2015. “Donald Trump's False Comments Connecting Mexican Immigrants and Crime.” Washington Post, 8 July.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

Contributor Notes

Amani Othman (BDs, MPH) is a doctoral student in the Department of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention at the Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work at Florida International University. She was born and received her early education in Saudi Arabia. ORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6500-2443. Email: aothm001@fiu.edu

William W. Darrow (PhD) is a Professor of Public Health at the Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work at Florida International University who collaborates with colleagues and students on historical and other research projects designed to improve the practice of global public health. He is a member of the International Advisory Board of the International Journal of Social Quality. ORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7198-6119. Email: darroww@fiu.edu

The International Journal of Social Quality

(formerly The European Journal of Social Quality)

  • Almukhtar, S., M. Gold, and L. Buchanan. 2018. “After Weinstein: 71 Men Accused of Sexual Misconduct and Their Fall From Power.” New York Times, updated 8 February.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartoletti, S. C. 2015. Terrible Typhoid Mary: A True Story of the Deadliest Cook in America. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

  • BBC. 2017. “Trump's Executive Order: Who Does Travel Ban Affect?10 February.

    • Export Citation
  • Beck, W., L. J. G. van der Maesen, and A Walker, eds. 1998. The Social Quality of Europe. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.

  • Beck, W., L. J. G. van der Maesen, and A. Walker. 2012. “Theoretical Foundations.” In Social Quality: From Theory to Indicators, ed. L. J. G. van der Maesen and A. Walker, 4469. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berting, J. 2012. “The Social Quality Approach in a Pluralist World.” International Journal of Social Quality 2 (1): 89107.

  • Bourdain, A. 2010. Typhoid Mary: An Urban Historical. London: Bloomsbury.

  • Castaneda, H., S. M. Holmes, D. S. Madrigal, M-E. D. Young, N. Beyeler, and J. Quesada. 2015. “Immigration as a Social Determinant of Health.” Annual Review of Public Health 36: 375392. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cillizza, C. 2017. “The Stunning Difference between Trump's Reaction to the Las Vegas Shooting and the NYC Attack.” CNN, 1 November.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CSHE (Center for the Study of Hate & Extremism). 2016. Special Status Report: Hate Crimes in the United States—20 State Compilation of Official Data. San Bernadino: California State University, San Bernadino.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Darrow, W. W. 2015. “The Decline and Disorganization of Public Health in the United States: Social Implications.” International Journal of Social Quality 6 (2): 2946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evening World. 1907. “Woman ‘Typhoid Factory’ Held as Prisoner.” 1 April.

    • Export Citation
  • Farrell, A. E. 2011. Fat Shame: Stigma and the Fat Body in American Culture. New York: New York University Press.

  • Gabaccia, D. R. 1994. From the Other Side: Women, Gender, and Immigrant Life in the U.S., 1820–1990. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gjelten, T. 2015. A Nation of Nations: A Great American Immigration Story. New York: Simon & Shuster.

  • Gjelten, T. 2018. “Donald Trump and a Century-Old Argument About Who's Allowed in America.” The Atlantic, 13 January.

  • Higham, J. 2002. Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860–1925. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

  • Holman, D., and A. Walker. 2017. “Social Quality and Health: Examining Individual and Neighbourhood Contextual Effects Using a Multilevel Modelling Approach.” Social Indicators Research 138 (1): 245270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-017-1640-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huber, J. B. 1915. “‘Microbe Carriers’ – The Newly Discovered Danger to Everybody's Health – and No Remedy for It.” Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11 July.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunter, G. W., and W. G. Whitman. 1935. Science in Our Social Life. New York: American Book Company.

  • Karni, A. 2019. “Cool Reception for a Plan on Immigration.” New York Times, 17 May, A12.

  • Kearns, E. M., A. E. Betus, and A. F. Lemieux. 2019. “Why Do Some Terrorist Attacks Receive More Media Attention Than Others?Justice Quarterly 36 (6): 9851022 https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2018.1524507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kraut, A. M. 1995. Silent Travelers: Germs, Genes, and the Immigrant Menace. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

  • Krugman, P. 2018. “Health Care, Hatred and Lies.” New York Times, 26 October, A25

  • Krugman, P. 2019. “Why Isn't Trump A Real Populist?New York Times, 19 June, A22.

  • Lazarus, E. (1883) 2002. “The New Colossus.” In Emma Lazarus: Selected Poems and Other Writings, ed. G. Eiselein, 233. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leavitt, J. W. 1997. Typhoid Mary: Captive to the Public's Health. Boston: Beacon Press.

  • Levenson, E., S. Said, and S. Almasy. 2018. “Man Leads Police to Body, Faces Murder Charge in Mollie Tibbetts Case.” CNN, 22 August.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, K., P. Ward, and L. J. G. van der Maesen. 2009. “Social Quality Theory in Perspective.” Development and Society 38 (2): 201208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopez Moreno, J. H. 2007. “Media Influence on Perceptions toward Mexican Undocumented Immigrants Living in the United States.” PhD diss., Alliant International University.

    • Export Citation
  • McNeil, D. G. Jr. 2016. “The Ethics of Hunting Down Patient Zero.” New York Times, 30 October.

  • New York Times. 1924. “Baker, Warned as Typhoid Carrier, in Court As Public Menace for Making Shortcake.” 14 March.

    • Export Citation
  • New York Tribune. 1918. “On the Trail of Typhoid Mary.” 28 July.

    • Export Citation
  • Patel, F., and R. Levinson-Waldman. 2017. “The Islamophobic Administration.” Brennan Center for Justice, 19 April.

    • Export Citation
  • Payne, K. W. 1915. “Witch in N.Y.” Tacoma Times, 6 April.

  • Pearce, F. 2009. “Pests and Pestilence.” Foreign Policy, 3 November.

  • Public Health Reports. 1911. Public Health Reports 26 (11): 313360. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1999084.

  • Ramos, J. 2015. “Jorge Ramos Spars with Ann Coulter Over Her Comparison of Immigrants to ISIS.” America with George Ramos, 26 May. https://fusion.net/video/139852/jorge-ramos-ann-coulter-interview.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sandoval-Peck, C. 2016. “From ‘Destroying Angel’ to ‘The Most Dangerous Woman in America’: A Study of Mary Mallon's Depiction in Popular Culture.” BA thesis, University of Washington Tacoma.

    • Export Citation
  • Schreckinger, B. 2015. “Donald Trump Storms Phoenix Arizona Speech Draws Protesters and Thousands of Cheering Supporters.” Politico, 11 July.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shear, M. D. 2019. “Trump's Plan Upends Rules on Migration.” New York Times, 16 May, A1.

  • Shear, M. D., and A. Goldman. 2017. “Micheal Flynn Pleads Guilty to Lying to the F.B.I. and Will Cooperate with Russia Inquiry.” New York Times, 1 December.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simon, D. 2018. “Politicians Blame Immigration Laws for Mollie Tibbetts’ Fate.” CNN, 22 August.

  • Soper, G. 1907. “The Work of a Chronic Typhoid Germ Distributor.” Journal of the American Medical Association 48 (24): 20192022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1907.25220500025002d

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trump, D. 2019. “Remarks by President Trump on Modernizing Our Immigration System for a Stronger America.” White House, 16 May. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-modernizing-immigration-system-stronger-america.

    • Export Citation
  • Van der Maesen, L. J. G. 2013. “Analyzing Societal Circumstances, Sustainability and Sustainable Urban Development: New Theoretical and Methodological Challenges for Social Quality Indicators.” International Journal of Social Quality 3 (1): 82105 doi:10.3167/IJSQ.2013.030106

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Maesen, L. J. G. 2017. “Editorial: The Rule of Law—A Heuristic Perspective?International Journal of Social Quality 7 (2): vxvi. https://doi.org/10.3167/IJSQ.2017.070201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Maesen, L. J. G. 2018. “Editorial: The Evolution of 20 Years of Social Quality Thinking.” International Journal of Social Quality 8 (1): vxxiii. https://doi.org/10.3167/IJSQ.2018.080101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Maesen, L. J. G., and H. G. J. Nijhuis. 2000. “Continuing the Debate on the Philosophy of Modern Public Health: Social Quality as a Point of Reference.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 54 (2): 134142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, A. C., and L. J. G. van der Maesen. 2004. “Social Quality and Quality of Life.” In Challenges for Quality of Life in the Contemporary World, ed. W. Glatzer, S. von Below, and M. Stoffregen, 1331. Boston: Academic Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ye Hee Lee, M. 2015. “Donald Trump's False Comments Connecting Mexican Immigrants and Crime.” Washington Post, 8 July.

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 142 142 31
Full Text Views 74 74 7
PDF Downloads 34 34 0