At around 9:00 pm on 12 November 2011, Silvio Berlusconi officially
informed the president of the Republic, Giorgio Napolitano, of his
resignation. The following day, the president invited Mario Monti to
form a new government. This marked the end of a long crisis involving
Berlusconi, not only as the head of the government, but also as
the leader of the center-right parliamentary majority, which had been
built on the alliance between the Popolo della Libertà (PdL, People of
Freedom) and the Lega Nord (LN, Northern League).