From Urban Agriculture to Urban Food

Food System Analysis Based on Interaction Between Research, Policy, and Society

in Nature and Culture
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  • 1 Swiss Academic Society for Environmental Research and Ecology heidrun.moschitz@fibl.org
  • | 2 The Research Institute of Organic Agriculture jan.landert@fibl.org
  • | 3 The Research Institute of Organic Agriculture christian.schader@fibl.org
  • | 4 The Research Institute of Organic Agriculture rebekka.frick@fibl.org

Abstract

Urban agriculture is embedded in an urban food system, and its full potential can only be understood by looking into the dynamics of the system. Involving a variety of actors from civil society, policy, and the market, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the food system of the city of Basel, Switzerland, including policy and actor analysis, analysis of perceptions on urban agriculture, food flow analysis, and a sustainability assessment. The article presents the results of these analyses and discusses how research can contribute to the societal debate on food systems transformation. We particularly reflect on how the research project became a boundary object in a dynamic process to develop new ideas and activities, as well as to create a space for future debates in the city’s food system.

Urban Agriculture in the Urban Food System

Urban agriculture practice involves a new way of thinking about food, including a critique of the predominant food system. It plays a major role in making food visible and can thus support a general reflection of urban inhabitants on an increasingly globally interconnected and industrialized food system, as well as stimulating the debate about cities’ approaches to sustainable transformation of their food systems (Moschitz and Kueffer 2016). To address urban agriculture’s potential and challenges for shaping a city’s food system, our perspective needs to be expanded beyond the narrow definition of local food production (Morgan 2009; Morgan and Sonnino 2010). Urban agriculture is influenced by a number of municipal and regional policies and planning decisions. In their study about urban agriculture in Sydney, David Mason and Ian Knowd (2010) concluded that urban agriculture has the potential to contribute to quality of life in social, economic, and environmental terms, but that overarching policies are needed in order to fulfill this potential. Similarly, Jan-Eelco Jansma and colleagues (2012) suggest that, in the case of the Dutch city of Almere, a mere focus on local production will not suffice to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. They conclude that the focus must be expanded to, among others, changing consumers’ food consumption behavior and redesigning the local food distribution system. In other words, the potential of urban agriculture is best understood if one considers its role in the overarching urban food system (Mason and Knowd 2010; Sonnino 2009).

Therefore, in this article, we take the perspective of an urban food system. Our particular interest is to explore to what extent the analysis of a city’s food system can contribute to the societal debate on food systems transformation. We do this by looking into the case of the city of Basel, in the northwest of Switzerland, where urban food system activities were first initiated by an engaged civil society movement before being taken up in the debates of the local government.

An urban food system comprises all processes that food undergoes in a particular urban area, from production to processing, transport, and distribution, to consumption and waste disposal. This includes not only food produced in the urban area, but also food that is imported into this area. Each of these processes is embedded in a larger socioeconomic-ecological-political system: “Living and eating in cities is nowadays inextricably linked to globalized chains of food production, processing and distribution” (Wiskerke and Viljoen 2012: 21). While this system has brought many benefits to the urban population, it involves a number of challenges, such as environmental pollution and degradation, social (in)equity, public health, and more (Wiskerke 2009). Addressing these challenges requires looking at these different themes simultaneously, and in particular considering their interrelations. While (or because) our food system has caused a number of problems, taking a food systems perspective can also be used as a vehicle to address those environmental, economic, and societal problems in a city (Moragues et al. 2013; Wiskerke and Viljoen 2012). The diversity of policy fields and topics that must be considered in food systems research also invites a number of different actors into the debate. Johannes Wiskerke and André Viljoen (2012) point to the necessity of crossing disciplinary borders in scientific research and policy making, as well as between the realms of science and policy. Clare Hinrichs (2010) emphasizes the mutual benefits of engaging a multitude of different actors, including researchers of different disciplines as well as farmers, processors, and entrepreneurs, to understand the complexity of food systems.

To reflect the complexity of food systems research, our project combined analyses in four areas. First, we identified the actors and policies that are relevant to food in the city. Second, we explored the different roles and functions urban agriculture plays in the urban food system, and how consumers and producers perceive urban food. Third, we analyzed how selected food actually flows into the system, and in what quantities. Finally, we undertook a comprehensive sustainability assessment of the food system.

In view of the above considerations, we (as researchers) undertook this comprehensive analysis interactively with political and societal actors and employed a multimethod approach. This article both focuses on the outcomes of our food systems analysis and reflects on the degree to which research contributed to stimulating the food debate between policy and society.

In remainder of the article, after summarizing the methods used to analyze the food system, we present the results in two parts: the first shows the results of our urban food systems analysis (status quo), and the second uses this analysis to develop potential fields of activity in the city toward sustainable transformation of the food system. We conclude with a reflection on the research-policy-society interaction, its role for the dynamics of the city’s food system, and an outlook on further fields of research.

Methods

As mentioned in the introduction, the research project covered four focus areas: policy and actor analysis, functions and perceptions, food flows, and sustainability assessment. Together these areas formed a comprehensive and systematic approach for assessment of the food system of the city of Basel. In the following paragraphs, the methods applied in each of these focus areas are described.

Policy and Actor Analysis

In order to identify the relevant actors in the city’s food system, we scanned directories and the websites of city departments, systematically considering the different food-related processes. The identification of relevant policy documents started at the local level by searching the publicly accessible online archive of laws, directives, and other legal regulations for keywords, such as “food,” “agriculture,” and “nutrition” (Moschitz et al. 2015). In a second step, the websites of the local and federal departments were searched for any political and strategic document that could potentially discuss food, in particular food related to the city. The identified documents were then searched for the term “food” as well as for the roles assigned to cities in the food system.

Functions and Perceptions of Urban Agriculture and the Urban Food System

To determine the role of urban agriculture in Basel’s food system, we collected data from written documents and websites of the different urban agriculture projects. Statistical information about the farm businesses and allotment gardens in the city were available on the city’s website. To explore the functions and services that the different projects provide, we conducted interviews with people from six projects. According to the definition by Marian Simon-Rojo and colleagues (2016), three of these projects would be classified as “urban food gardening” and three as “urban farms.” A standardized questionnaire was used that had been developed in Working Group Three of the COST Action TD1106 Urban Agriculture Europe (COST 2017). To explore their views on the food system in the urban area, five in-depth interviews were carried out with farmers in the city region, and eight with consumers (Zaugg 2016). The aim was to gain insight into a wide spectrum of perceptions and attitudes on different processes related to food, to put the results of our other analyses in context.

Food Flows

We explored food flows of selected food products in order to get a close understanding of what food provisioning in Basel looks like and in order to identify what share of the food that is consumed in Basel is produced regionally. The definition of “region” in this study encompassed the cantons of Basel City, Basel District, Aargau, and Solothurn. The products analyzed included apples, carrots, milk, beef, and veal. The information collected for tracing the food flows was obtained from actors along the supply chain in the region and statistics of production and consumption (Frick et al. 2016).

Sustainability Assessment

To assess the sustainability levels of the city’s food system, we developed and applied a method based on the Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA) guidelines (FAO 2014). SAFA has a holistic view on sustainability, and is based on a broad stakeholder consultation. In four sustainability dimensions (good governance, environmental integrity, economic resilience, and social well-being), SAFA specifies 58 subthemes with formulated goals. To adapt the assessment method to urban food systems, we first defined the system boundary to include the activities of local politics and administration in its two roles: (1) influencing the processes in the food system through policies, and (2) as a market actor by procuring food, running public canteens, or contracting private operators for public-private canteens. Second, we selected a set of suitable indicators to operationalize the sustainability goals, refining them in a workshop with the advisory board. Finally, based on best practices in literature, scales were attached to each of the indicators (Landert et al. 2017).

While some indicators could be assessed by consulting written documents, 27 interviews were carried out to collect data on those indicators for which no written data existed. Interviewees were representatives from public administration, the urban agriculture movement, and soup kitchens, as well as public/public-private canteen managers and farmers’ market vendors. The final rating of indicators and degree of goal achievement for all SAFA subthemes were provided to members of the administration as a basis for the process of further food system planning.

Status Quo Analysis of the Urban Food System

This section presents the status quo of Basel’s food system, building on and synthesizing the results of our analyses of each of the focus areas. We start with looking into how food is governed in the city, and then move through the processes that a food system consists of: production, processing and distribution, retail and consumption, and waste.

Overall Food System Governance

The multiple aspects that food addresses are reflected in the number of city departments dealing with food in Basel. Six out of seven departments govern food in the city in some form: administration of agricultural land rentals (Finance Department), negotiation of land use practice (Department of Economy, Social Affairs, and Environment), public health programs in schools (Department of Public Health; Department of Education), spatial planning and management of green spaces (Department of Construction and Traffic), and sustainability strategy (Presidential Department). However, our analysis of policy documents and institutions shows that there is no comprehensive food strategy, and generally food is not a major topic in the city. In line with this, food is hardly mentioned at all in the planning documents of the canton. Recently, however, activities were launched aiming at fostering more exchange on food-related activities across city departments. This happened in response to the city government signing the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact, which encourages cities to implement local food strategies (Kantons- und Stadtentwicklung 2017). This “invisibility” of food in the city government reflects the situation at the national level in Switzerland, where food is largely assigned to agricultural policy and thus concerns rural areas rather than urban areas (Moschitz 2017). The lack of overarching food system governance also manifests in the low transparency of the food system: neither the contracts with public/public-private canteen managers are made public, nor did we find in our sample of investigated canteens a case where the origin of raw materials or a list of suppliers was accessible to customers.

In contrast to its weak internal food system governance, Basel’s government has been indirectly lobbying through its membership in cities’ associations for more sustainable food procurement on the national and international level. More directly, in the last two years, the city government approved revisions of national-level legislation aimed at making the Swiss food system more sustainable (e.g., protection of wild fish stock or the improvement of animal welfare).

Production

With regard to food production, we considered three different levels in the city of Basel. First, we were interested in the quantities of selected food products produced in the (economic) region around Basel and their shares in Basel’s food supplies. Second, we looked more closely at farms that produce within the boundaries of the city or adjoining municipalities. Third, we considered urban gardeners who cultivate allotment gardens or community gardens and produce food in small quantities.

At current production levels, the region around Basel could potentially supply between 20 percent (carrots) and all (veal) of the quantity consumed in Basel (see Table 1). Generally, if not provided from the immediate region, a high share of apples and carrots are still provisioned from Switzerland: only 4 percent of the apples and 12 percent of the carrots consumed in Switzerland are imported (Schweizer Obstverband 2015; Verband Schweizer Gemüseproduzenten 2014). The figures in Table 1 reflect the high importance of grassland in the hilly regions around Basel, which favor ruminant-based production systems.1

Within the city’s administration boundaries, 404 hectares of land are used for food production, composed of eight farms. Three of these farms are certified as organic. The conversion to organic farming is financially supported by Basel’s administration beyond the federal subsidies. In line with this, Basel provides financial incentives for agricultural practices that promote biodiversity and reduce ammonia emissions. Animal welfare is monitored on farms and at the slaughterhouse. Apart from influencing farm practices, there are also minimum requirements for employment contracts on farms. At a higher level, the city aims to protect periurban farmland through its spatial planning policies.

All farms profit from a nearby agricultural extension center offering advice and specific training courses to farmers in the region. These courses include topics such as animal welfare, special cultures, technology and construction, usage of computers, diets, and bookkeeping, as well as gardening. The courses thereby promote the financial sustainability of farms, women’s empowerment, professional know-how, and health, all of which contributes to more resilient regional agriculture.

Some farms offer school programs or organize recreational activities for the public, such as pumpkin festivals. However, there is no collective effort/activity of farms to connect agriculture and the city. Indeed, as the interviews with farmers showed, they identify much more with the “rural” than the “urban,” despite their geographical proximity to the city. The city (or citizens) is viewed much more as something “you have to deal with” than as a market opportunity. Although some interviewed farmers found the proximity to the city advantageous, they also pointed to potential conflicts, such as conflicting recreational use and complaints about odor emissions: “Yes, it would be much easier to do farming if you were further away from the city instead of being so close to it” (producer P5).

Table 1

Theoretical Share of Regional Provision of Selected Products

ProductApplesCarrotsMilkBeefVeal
Source: own calculations; based on effective production in the region.
Theoretically possible share of regional supply to the city32%20%53%53%101%

While small-scale urban gardening projects and allotment gardens play a minor role in food provisioning, they contribute to other food-related services in the city. In total, there are 6,400 allotment gardens in the city, on 168 hectares of land, and involving around 13,000 citizens. In addition, we found around 35 urban gardening projects, on a total of about one hectare of land, in the form of intercultural gardens, community gardens, school gardens, and intergenerational gardens, in which a total of about 250 citizens are involved. The functions and services provided by these garden types go beyond mere recreational purposes to social inclusion, community building, education, and self-provisioning with fresh food. Many of them show a high diversity of different vegetables and varieties, thus contributing to agrobiodiversity. Although Basel’s administration does not especially promote this practice, the administration monitors the natural species diversity, showing that it recognizes the importance of gardens for urban biodiversity. While the more recent urban gardening projects practice organic and permaculture principles, allotment gardeners often do not adhere to the regulation prescribing organic production methods. There is a lack of control in the gardens, and previous studies have shown that only two-thirds of the gardeners actually follow organic rules (Jahrl et al. 2015).

Processing and Distribution

Since processing companies often also act as wholesale traders, we present these processes together. There are a number of wholesalers in the city of Basel, including eight specializing in fruit and vegetables, six for meat products, and seven for general wholesale. These structures enable local farmers to easily sell their produce in the mainstream food chain (Zaugg 2016). With regard to the two main retailers in Switzerland (and also Basel), Coop and Migros, both are in the midst of a concentration process with a strong centralization of their distribution system. Both have food logistics and distribution centers in the region around Basel, with Coop’s being responsible for distributing to the northwest of Switzerland, and Migros’s distribution center covering all food distribution in Switzerland.

Considering the processing facilities of the selected products listed above, it is interesting to look at regional dairies and slaughterhouses. There are a number of dairies in the greater region around Basel. We found that trying to determine the specific flows of milk from producers to dairies and consumers is not possible due to the sector’s structure: milk is collected by several companies and delivered to different dairies, where it is mixed with milk of other origins. Although just one company is relevant to regional milk producers, only a very small share of this milk is actually identifiable by the consumers once it reaches supermarket shelves. The milk that is traceable and regionally labeled is produced by a small local dairy in the canton Basel District. It accounts for 1.5 percent of the total milk amounts collected by the dairy. While this local dairy is thus highly relevant for locally labeled dairy products, it plays a marginal role in overall provisioning of the city with milk products. With regard to meat processing, the Swiss market is highly centralized around two meat processing companies belonging to the two large retailers. In the past years, the ongoing centralization process has been accompanied by a process of increasing specialization. This has led to a situation in which only one slaughterhouse remains in the cantons of Basel City and Basel District. This slaughterhouse is specialized in pork, in spite of the ruminant-based production systems in the area (see above), so cattle must be transported to a slaughterhouse in a neighboring canton, roughly 50 kilometers away. Although this does not seem like a long distance, farmers perceive it as “out of the region.” In particular, one farmer producing only small quantities of meat mentioned that it was too cumbersome for him to transport the beef cattle to this location and that this led him to stop direct marketing and to rather sell to cattle traders. Two small butchers are still active in the closer region around the city, and it is only here that consumers can buy meat that can be traced to a particular regional origin. However, these butchers do not slaughter, although one is thinking of starting a new facility. This means that in terms of short and direct links between producers, processors, and consumers, there is currently no established direct link, but we can find a mix of short and long food supply chains. To consumers, this part of the food system remains fairly hidden and opaque: “Overall it’s certainly very hard to know what food is produced in Basel” (consumer K10).

An issue often raised in connection with food processing is food safety. Looking at the related activities of Basel’s administration, our sustainability analysis revealed that the city undertakes food safety controls by following a risk-based approach. Products and hygienic conditions in businesses are investigated in cases where there is a record of food safety issues in the past, the products are likely to deteriorate quickly, or a large number of people are exposed to potentially harmful food.

Retail and Consumption

In Switzerland, most food is bought from the two large retailers, Migros and Coop. Together, they hold more than two-thirds of all food sales in the country, although more recently, discounters and other retailers have gained in importance (Statista 2017).

In Basel, we identified nine retail companies with a total of 71 branches spread across the city. Typically, every city quarter has its own branch of Coop and Migros. Further, 29 small independent retail shops were found (often run by migrant families and typically open seven days a week). In addition, there are 50 bakeries, butchers, specialty, and organic shops. Consumers and producers interviewed in the qualitative study were generally satisfied with the decentralized food shopping possibilities in the city. They emphasized the importance of efficiency regarding the choice of shopping locations, and noted that thoughts about food do not dominate their daily lives: “You go there, pay, I don’t know whether this is a conscious act, first of all it’s an exchange of money for ̈. calories” (consumer K10).

However, consumers miss shops with fresh produce: in particular, they remarked on the lack of butcher shops in various neighborhoods. Similarly, they are not satisfied with the two existing weekly markets. Many pointed to the much more attractive farmers’ market in a nearby German town, which “has a broad offer and is very nice and just more lively” (consumer K6).

Due to Basel’s location directly at the borders with Germany and France, shopping beyond the borders, so-called shopping tourism, is an issue for both consumers and producers: “I don’t go to Germany for every little bit, but you can really save a lot of money there ̈. I don’t have a bad conscience” (consumer K10). Although understanding consumers’ preference for lower prices, producers, in particular in direct marketing, feel under pressure from this behavior: “They [the consumers] don’t think a lot about it, also not further into the future what this [shopping tourism] could mean ⃜. But when the conversation turns to this topic, we clearly say that it harms us or our production, and the sales” (producer P2).

Against the backdrop of the important role of supermarkets in food marketing and the undeniable relevance of shopping tourism, direct marketing is an option for producers to receive a higher income, although linked with some extra effort for marketing. Five farms in the city of Basel engage in direct marketing, and several more around the city, by attending farmers’ markets and creating box schemes and community-supported agriculture models. However, the overall amount of products sold directly is still quite small, and there is no central platform for local farmers to market their produce collectively. With regard to our focus products, producers only directly marketed apples and carrots in Basel. Our analysis showed that a share of 2 percent of apples and 4 percent of carrots out of the total consumption (excluding gastronomy) are sold directly via farmers’ markets, box schemes, or in farm shops. The regional agricultural extension center has not included courses on direct marketing strategies in the training curriculum. The local administration promotes regional products at farmers’ markets by providing a label to identify products at the farmers’ markets that are produced in the surrounding areas of Basel. Meals produced from regional products are also offered by the interviewed canteens, although only half of them could further elaborate on their procurement policy concerning local products.

While consumers cherish the direct link to producers, the latter feel that direct marketing addresses customers’ needs, as well as introducing an emotional aspect to food consumption: “[Last summer] we tried to use our own flour, from our own wheat ̈. and then I realized that this triggers something in the consumers: ‘Wow, this is that wheat through which I maybe walked every Sunday’” (producer P2).

Basel’s administration has also taken up the trend of emotional connection to food. In their blog aufgeschmeckt.ch, the Health Department lists tips for enjoying eating while consciously making healthy, regional, and seasonal choices. Consumers’ health is one of the administration’s focus topics when it comes to food consumption. This emphasis on health certainly derives to some extent from the fact that Basel has one of the highest health care demands per capita in Switzerland (Schleiniger 2014). Accordingly, the local administration runs target group-specific programs and campaigns to promote healthy diets. For instance, there are schoolchildren-related activities as well as information gatherings for socially disadvantaged families. Elderly people are addressed by the administration’s periodical Bâlance and younger people with the above-mentioned blog. Most of the investigated canteens also commit themselves in their mission statements to providing healthy food. However, only half of them apply recognized nutritional standards, such as the D-A-CH reference values for nutrient intake (DGE et al. 2016),2 which define recommended daily energy and nutrient intake for people of different ages.

The same canteens tackle other food-related sustainability aspects in various ways. For instance, some (but not all) canteens sell fair trade bananas, coffee, or tea. The picture is more homogeneous when it comes to seasonal food: the awareness regarding seasonal food is high, and accordingly, almost all the canteen managers stated that they prefer to buy seasonal food. However, in the framework of this study we could not identify the exact amounts. All but one of the investigated canteens offer a daily vegetarian meal, with some even having a vegetarian day with no meat alternative at all. To some extent, canteen cooks are trained to prepare vegetarian and vegan meals. Other environmental topics receive less attention: for instance, the water footprints of purchased products are in the majority of cases not relevant to buying decisions. Agrobiodiversity is also an overlooked issue, as the promotion of rare varieties or breeds is not in the focus of canteen managers. Similarly, genetically modified organisms are only explicitly excluded in half of the cases, and only three of the eight canteens buy organic products from time to time.

The above described procurement by public/public-private canteens fits into the bigger picture of Basel’s procurement regulations. Although the central procurement department ensures to some extent the uniform application of procurement criteria, these criteria are not very detailed in relation to environmental or social aspects; for example, no requirements for fair trade or organic food products are given. Interestingly, not even the basic core principles of the International Labour Organization on forced labor, child labor, freedom of association, and right to bargaining are considered in the procurement law. Gender equality in the contracting companies is, beside promoting apprenticeships, the only social criterion for public procurement. Controls of such criteria during the duration of a contract are not common.

Waste

To tackle environmental problems from the consumer side, Basel informs its population on how to reduce consumption-related food waste. This reflects the concerns of both producers and consumers, who link food waste to characteristics of an affluent society: “[In former times] one had to deal with scarcity, optimally use the products—that’s different today” (producer P1).

Public/public-private canteens only partially tackle food waste. While all of the eight canteens we looked at calculate their procurement amounts in as much detail as possible, only one of them monitors their food waste and has a concept in place about how to reduce the amount.

In regard to composting, consumers in Basel were critical about the possibilities. They mentioned a lack of information on the one hand, as well as a lack of a convenient system for collection of compost on the other. These statements interestingly contrast with Basel’s efforts to promote composting: the administration offers a hotline and training for composting and provides compost areas in different parts of the town. Although there is no collection system for food waste, some institutions provide their food waste for energy recovery to a biogas plant, which in turn also produces compost.

Potential Fields of Activity Derived from the Food System Analysis

From our mixed-methods analysis of Basel’s food system, we can derive three main fields of activity that could increase the overall sustainability of the food system. Reflecting the multiactor and multithematic nature of the food systems approach, these activity fields cut across processes and themes and involve different actors.

First of all, the direct impact of the food system on sustainability could be improved. Public food procurement and other large canteens are relevant here. The city (and other large companies with canteens) could use their power as important food buyers and ask for higher social and environmental standards (e.g., working conditions, animal welfare, environmentally sound production systems) of the suppliers. Although vegetarian meals are offered in most of the canteens we investigated, the choice of vegetarian or vegan options could still be improved.

A second field of activity looks at the local economy. We found that for a functioning local food supply chain, processing facilities of a size adapted to raw product supply and local food demand are crucial. In cases where they are missing (e.g., meat), local food supply becomes difficult; direct marketing of processed products is complicated. Yet, direct marketing could play a dual role in the urban food system. On the one hand, it could support local production and ensure higher product prices for farmers. On the other hand, it has an educative element: by buying directly from farmers, consumers can experience the seasonality of the produce and learn about production conditions, and producers can better identify consumers’ needs. Therefore, supporting direct marketing potentially increases the social and economic cohesion of a city’s food system. Relevant actors in this field are farmers’ organizations and advisory institutions who could promote collective actions by farmers—for instance, by including direct marketing strategies in training curricula.

As a third field of activity, our analysis revealed the overarching role of education. Both consumers and producers identified the lack of knowledge about food production, seasons, and healthy food as one of the major challenges in the food system. Education could target not only schoolchildren, but also the general public, as well as chefs of restaurants and canteens. While there are a few educational initiatives on healthy food in schools, a general food and nutrition education is missing. Education should involve urban gardening initiatives that can be found in close proximity to schools and neighborhoods, as well as farmers offering farm experience to the wider public. While both urban gardening initiatives and farmers already engage in educational activities, we found that linking the activities and working on a comprehensive curriculum that involves focused learning experiences with each of them could enhance food education. The city administration’s role could be one of coordinating.

In general, the impact of the different actors in the city’s food system would be increased if their activities were governed by a comprehensive central approach in the city. For instance, the city administration could facilitate negotiation processes between citizen-consumers, producers, processors, and other market partners. In this way, the role of agriculture in the urban area could also be renegotiated. Its different functions for the city—food production, education, local value creation, maintenance of green spaces in and around the city, promotion of well-being and recreation—could be discussed openly and links could be encouraged between the various relevant actors. In this way, agriculture in and around the city would be comprehended as “urban agriculture,” and shaped proactively in a joint effort by all stakeholders.

As we argued in the introduction, urban agriculture as a practice could thus stimulate reflection about a sustainable transformation of the urban food system. Such transformative processes require societal debates that include a variety of actors from civil society, policy, market, and research. In the following section, we therefore discuss the interactive approach chosen for our research.

Research Approach: Policy–Society–Research Interaction

There is no clear definition for the concept of sustainability. Rather, meaning is given to it depending on the specific context in which the term is negotiated and goals are set. “Sustainability is a process rather than an endpoint” (Hinrichs 2010: 32), so in sustainability research it is necessary to engage in a process that incorporates different viewpoints to achieve an outcome that is meaningful to all. For a city, this requires the engagement of all (potential) interest groups to jointly create a vision of a sustainable food system (Moschitz et al. 2015). Achieving a comprehensive understanding of the processes and themes in a city’s food system requires an approach to knowledge exchange that spans the boundaries of different disciplines, cultures, and institutional contexts. This is challenging, but if all actors involved have a core interest in the topic, it can lead to fruitful results (Fry et al. 2008; Karner et al. 2015). In the context of urban food systems, several projects have already proved that such interaction resulted in tangible results ready to be used by practitioners (Moragues et al. 2013).

In Basel, activities related to urban food systems had begun prior to the research project, fueled by engaged civil society organizations, in particular by an urban agriculture movement. They had started making food visible in the city through several initiatives, such as food co-ops, community-supported agriculture, collective gardening, and food sharing. But a response from the city administration to this civil action was missing. For some time, different city departments had implemented dispersed food-related activities without connecting them to each other. The contrast between the highly networked new activities and the rather sectoral perception of food system governance by the city’s authorities triggered our interest in exploring the city’s food system more closely. In particular, we were interested in whether a debate between the relevant civil society, policy, and market actors can be supported by a research project, and how far civil society action can actually contribute to a transformation of a city’s food system.

We chose our research approach accordingly: from the start of the project, we set up an advisory group, including representatives from the city administration, retailers, caterers, civil society, farmers, a dairy organization, and the agricultural center (consulting). The advisory board was involved during the whole research process. Three workshops were carried out, at the start, in the middle, and toward the end of the project, and individual actors were approached on particular questions in between those meetings. The role of the advisory board was to critically comment on the research questions, to support us in data collection, and to reflect on preliminary results. In view of the aforementioned conception of sustainability as a multiperspective process, the members of the advisory board were particularly crucial in defining and selecting the indicators we applied to assess the food system’s sustainability.

In the following, we reflect on how our approach—interacting with policy and civil society—turned the research project into a boundary object for the discussion processes on Basel’s food system.

The Research Project as a Boundary Object

Figure 1 schematically presents the role that the research project played in the dynamics of food systems debates in Basel, bringing civil society and policy closer to each other.

Establishing Contacts between Actors

In the beginning of the research project, we invited the different actors to join the advisory board. For many of them, it was the first time meeting in such a diverse group, and this was highly appreciated. Our research project therefore contributed to connecting food system actors that had not had a reason so far to meet and exchange. It played the role of a boundary object, that is, “an entity shared by several different communities but viewed or used differently by each of them, being both plastic enough to adapt to local needs and the constraints of the several parties employing them, yet robust enough to maintain a common identity across sites” (Star and Griesemer 1989: 393). Boundary objects allow people from different backgrounds, contexts, and interests to come together and negotiate about meanings, align attitudes, and develop joint actions (Tisenkopfs et al. 2015). To make this work as well as possible, we organized the workshops with the advisory board in a way that allowed its members to discuss different approaches to, and meanings of, food in the city, thus laying the basis for potential further collaboration.

Figure 1
Figure 1

The research project as boundary object in dynamic food system processes in the city.

Citation: Nature and Culture 13, 1; 10.3167/nc.2018.130106

The Role of a Joint Exhibition and Signing of the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact

In the middle of the research, the city of Basel decided to use the research project as the basis for one of the city’s exhibitions at the Universal Exposition Expo Milan 2015. This ultimately became the second boundary object for the stakeholders involved. Several members of the advisory board joined the group, and a process of intense collaboration began under the coordination of the city’s marketing department. During the expo, Basel also signed the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact, an international protocol in which the (currently 133) signatory cities commit themselves to actions improving their food system’s sustainability. Signing the document triggered the formation of an interdepartmental working group to coordinate food-related activities and projects in the city, and as one of the first activities, this group discussed the results of the project’s sustainability assessment.

Reflecting on the Role of Civil Society

Coming back to our question of the influence of civil society on a city’s food system transformation, we want to reflect on its role played in the research process. While in particular the urban agriculture movement had put food on the agenda of the city, our research project involved additional civil society organizations active in (organic) farming and heritage species. The project’s advisory board thus profited from a wide expertise in different fields, and the specific networks of these organizations. On the other hand, the communication spaces provided by the research project (in its function as a boundary object) enabled a highly appreciated opportunity for civil society to connect with representatives from the city administration and the market. Communication was intensified during preparation of the city’s exhibition at the World Expo, which would not have been possible without the expertise and time investments of the civil society organizations. As a result, close contacts between administration and civil society are now established, and have already been reactivated for a joint conference contribution some months after the project had ended.

Yet, while the space for communication seems to be established, civil society organizations seem partly in an area of tension between political and practical action. They are constrained by limited resources and need to decide where to invest them. Keeping up their societal impact through tangible projects and results comes at the expense of continued engagement in the policy debate. While the research project has contributed to starting such a debate between administration and civil society, it remains to be seen if it is kept up and whether it may lead to transforming the city’s food system.

Conclusion and Outlook

The presented research project is one of the first to undertake a systematic assessment of a city’s food system from different angles applying a variety of methods. We identified three main fields of activities for a transition toward a more sustainable food system: increasing social and environmental standards of public procurement, strengthening the local economy by promoting short food supply chains, and raising awareness for food production and consumption through education. Initiatives in these fields of action could be supported by the local administration taking a coordinating role between food systems actors. Urban agriculture can be an anchor point for multiple activities, since it fulfills different functions and roles in the urban food system.

In view of the wider food debate in the city of Basel, we conclude that by providing a platform for discussion and exchange of ideas between researchers, city administration, civil society, and other food system actors, the research project acted as a boundary object. It helped to develop new ideas and activities, as well as to create a space for future debates. The city administration took up the potential of the research project to intensify collaboration between departments, but also with civil society. Conclusions from our sustainability assessment were taken up by an interdepartmental working group that coordinates the implementation of measures outlined in the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact. The dynamic process that developed in the course of the project underlines the crucial role of joint action of different food system actors. Future research should therefore go beyond mere sustainability analysis and address how collaboration across city departments as well as between administration, civil society, and market actors (such as farmers, processors, or retail) can realize its full potential.

Acknowledgments

This research has been financed by the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation SERI, under the COST Action Urban Agriculture in Europe (TD 1106).

Notes

1

While figures for beef and veal seem relatively high, one should keep in mind that, in total, beef consumption only constitutes 27 percent of total meat consumption in Switzerland, and veal only 5 percent.

2

D-A-CH stands for the three German speaking countries Germany (D), Austria (A), and Switzerland (CH) whose respective professional associations publish the reference values.

References

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  • DGE, ÖGE, and SGE. 2016. D-A-CH Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr. 2nd ed., Bonn: Umschau.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2014. Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA). Rome: FAO.

    • Search Google Scholar
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  • Frick, Rebekka, Judith Hecht, Heidrun Moschitz, and Jan Landert. 2016. Lebensmittelflüsse in Basel. Project report. http://orgprints.org/30065/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fry, Patricia, Felicitas Bachmann, Lisa Bose, Manuel Flury, Ruth Foerster, Andreas Klaey, Christoph Kueffer, and Claudia Zingerli. 2008. “Von Implizitem Know-How zu Expliziten Thesen Inter- und Transdisziplinarer Wissensaustausch”. GAIA—Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society 17 (3): 318320.

    • Crossref
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  • Hinrichs, Clare. 2010. “Conceptualizing and Creating Sustainable Food Systems: How Interdisciplinarity Can Help.” In Imagining Sustainable Food Systems: Theory and Practice, ed. Alison Blay-Palmer, 1735. Surrey: Ashgate.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jahrl, Ingrid, Robert Home, Jean-Luc Tschabold, Hanna Stolz, and Stéphanie Lichtsteiner. 2015. Familiengärten—Biogärten: Ansätze zur Förderung der Ökologisierung Städtischer Flächen. Städtebericht Basel. Forschungsinstitut für Biologischen Landbau.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jansma, Jan-Eelco, Wijnand Sukkel, Eveline S.C. Stilma, Alex C. van Oost, and Andries J. Visser. 2012. “The Impact of Local Food Production on Food Miles, Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emission: The Case of the Dutch City of Almere.” In Sustainable Food Planning: Evolving Theory and Practice, ed. André Viljoen and Johannes S. C. Wiskerke, 307322. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Academic Publishers.

    • Crossref
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    • Export Citation
  • Kantons-und Stadtentwicklung. 2017. “Nachhaltige Ernährung.” http://www.entwicklung.bs.ch/grundlagen/nachhaltigkeit/ernaehrung.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karner, Sandra, Bettina Bock, Femke Hoekstra, Heidrun Moschitz, Anita Thaler, and Johannes S. C. Wiskerke. 2015. “FOODLINKS: Building Communities of Practice for Learning on Sustainable Food Consumption and Production.” In Knowledge Brokerage for Sustainable Development, ed. André Martinuzzi and Michal Sedlacko, 171188. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landert, Jan, Christian Schader, Heidrun Moschitz, and Matthias Stolze. 2017. “A Holistic Sustainability Assessment Method for Urban Food Systems”. Sustainability 9 (4): 490.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, David, and Ian Knowd. 2010. “The Emergence of Urban Agriculture: Sydney, Australia”. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 8 (1–2): 6271. doi:10.3763/ijas.2009.0474.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moragues, Ana, Kevin Morgan, Heidrun Moschitz, Ilze Neimane, Helen Nilsson, Maria Pinto, Harald Rohracher, et al.. 2013. “Urban Food Strategies: The Rough Guide to Sustainable Food Systems”. Document developed in the framework of the FP7 project FOODLINKS (GA No. 265287).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, Kevin. 2009. “Feeding the City: The Challenge of Urban Food Planning”. International Planning Studies 14 (4): 341348. doi:10.1080/13563471003642852.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, Kevin, and Roberta Sonnino. 2010. “The Urban Foodscape: World Cities and the New Food Equation”. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 3 (2): 209224. doi:10.1093/cjres/rsq007.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moschitz, H. (2017). Where is urban food policy in Switzerland? A frame analysis. International Planning Studies, 115. doi:10.1080/13563475.2017.1389644.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moschitz, Heidrun, and Christoph Kueffer. 2016. “Urban Agriculture: Passing Fad or New Prospects for Agriculture and Cities?GAIA—Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society 25 (2): 128130. doi:10.14512/gaia.25.2.14.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moschitz, Heidrun, Dirk Roep, Gianluca Brunori, and Talis Tisenkopfs. 2015. “Learning and Innovation Networks for Sustainable Agriculture: Processes of Co-evolution, Joint Reflection and Facilitation”. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 21 (1): 111. doi:10.1080/1389224x.2014.991111.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schleiniger, Reto. 2014. “Health Care Cost in Switzerland: Quantity- or Price-Driven?Health Policy 117 (1): 8389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2014.04.004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schweizer Obstverband. 2015. Jahresbericht (Annual Report) 2014. Zug.

  • Simon-Rojo, Marian, Xavier Recasens, Sonja Callau, Barbora Duzi, Sebastian Eiter, Verónica Hernández-Jiménez, Patricia Kettle, et al.. 2016. “From Urban Food Gardening to Urban Farming.” In Urban Agriculture Europe, ed. Frank Lohrberg, Lilli Licka, Lionella Scazzosi, and Axel Timpe, 2228. Berlin: Jovis.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sonnino, Roberta. 2009. “Feeding the City: Towards a New Research and Planning Agenda”. International Planning Studies 14 (4): 425435. doi:10.1080/13563471003642795.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Star, Susan Leigh, and James R. Griesemer. 1989. “Institutional Ecology, ‘Translations’ and Boundary Objects: Amateurs and Professionals in Berkeley’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 1907–39”. Social Studies of Science 19 (3): 387420. doi:10.1177/030631289019003001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Statista. 2017. “Umsatzverteilung im Lebensmittelhandel in der Schweiz nach Vertriebskanälen von 2011 bis 2015.” https://de.statista.com.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tisenkopfs, Talis, Ilona Kunda, Sandra Šuˉmane, Gianluca Brunori, Laurens Klerkx, and Heidrun Moschitz. 2015. “Learning and Innovation in Agriculture and Rural Development: The Use of the Concepts of Boundary Work and Boundary Objects”. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 21 (1): 1333. doi:10.1080/1389224x.2014.991115.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verband Schweizer Gemüseproduzenten. 2014. “Fakten zum Schweizer Gemüsebau: Übersicht zum Schweizer Gemüsemarkt im Jahr 2014.” Leaflet, Bern, Switzerland.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiskerke, Johannes S. C. 2009. “On Places Lost and Places Regained: Reflections on the Alternative Food Geography and Sustainable Regional Development”. International Planning Studies 14 (4): 369387. doi:10.1080/13563471003642803.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiskerke, Johannes S. C., and André Viljoen. 2012. “Sustainable Urban Food Provisioning: Challenges for Scientists, Policymakers, Planners and Designers.” In Sustainable Food Planning: Evolving Theory and Practice, ed. André Viljoen and Johannes S. C. Wiskerke, 1935. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zaugg, Aurélie. 2016. “Essen und Ernährung in der Stadt: Wahrnehmung und Einstellungen von Konsument/innen und Produzent/innen zum ‘Ernährungssystem’ Basel.” Master’s thesis, CDE—Centre for Development and Environment, Bern.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Contributor Notes

Heidrun Moschitz has a background in agricultural science and policy network analysis, and has been working on urban-rural linkages in Switzerland and Europe for many years. Her particular interest is in understanding mechanisms of urban food governance, and the interactions between policy, administration, and civil society. She also looks into the meanings and importance of local food in urban and rural areas, including organic food and farming development. Currently, she coordinates the working group on urban agriculture of the Swiss Academic Society for Environmental Research and Ecology (saguf). E-mail: heidrun.moschitz@fibl.org

Jan Landert has studied environmental sciences at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. Directly after his studies, he worked on topics related to water quality. In the past years, his research has focused on the sustainability of food systems. In this field, he developed indicators and methods to assess the sustainability of entire food systems, as well as farms and businesses in the food sector. Most recently, he has been working on how to assess the urban food system governance with regard to sustainability. E-mail: jan.landert@fibl.org

Christian Schader is leading sustainability assessment activities at the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) in Switzerland. He studied agricultural sciences at the University of Bonn and holds a PhD in agri-environmental policy evaluation at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. His work encompasses evaluations of environmental, economic, and social aspects of food production and consumption. This includes the development and application of methods, models, and tools for analyzing different environmental, economic, and social aspects of food supply chains. E-mail: christian.schader@fibl.org

Rebekka Frick holds an MSc in environmental governance from the University of Freiburg (Germany). Her focus is on governance of environmental problems related to agriculture with an emphasis on local and regional governance mechanisms. In particular, she has looked at the connection of agriculture and cities by studying the meanings of urban gardening activities. Further, she has analyzed the food flows for different cities. Currently, she works on a project that elaborates an action plan aiming at fostering the organic value chain in a specific region in Switzerland. E-mail: rebekka.frick@fibl.org

  • View in gallery

    The research project as boundary object in dynamic food system processes in the city.

  • COST. 2017. Urban Agriculture Europe http://www.urbanagricultureeurope.la.rwth-aachen.de/

  • DGE, ÖGE, and SGE. 2016. D-A-CH Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr. 2nd ed., Bonn: Umschau.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2014. Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA). Rome: FAO.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frick, Rebekka, Judith Hecht, Heidrun Moschitz, and Jan Landert. 2016. Lebensmittelflüsse in Basel. Project report. http://orgprints.org/30065/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fry, Patricia, Felicitas Bachmann, Lisa Bose, Manuel Flury, Ruth Foerster, Andreas Klaey, Christoph Kueffer, and Claudia Zingerli. 2008. “Von Implizitem Know-How zu Expliziten Thesen Inter- und Transdisziplinarer Wissensaustausch”. GAIA—Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society 17 (3): 318320.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinrichs, Clare. 2010. “Conceptualizing and Creating Sustainable Food Systems: How Interdisciplinarity Can Help.” In Imagining Sustainable Food Systems: Theory and Practice, ed. Alison Blay-Palmer, 1735. Surrey: Ashgate.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jahrl, Ingrid, Robert Home, Jean-Luc Tschabold, Hanna Stolz, and Stéphanie Lichtsteiner. 2015. Familiengärten—Biogärten: Ansätze zur Förderung der Ökologisierung Städtischer Flächen. Städtebericht Basel. Forschungsinstitut für Biologischen Landbau.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jansma, Jan-Eelco, Wijnand Sukkel, Eveline S.C. Stilma, Alex C. van Oost, and Andries J. Visser. 2012. “The Impact of Local Food Production on Food Miles, Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emission: The Case of the Dutch City of Almere.” In Sustainable Food Planning: Evolving Theory and Practice, ed. André Viljoen and Johannes S. C. Wiskerke, 307322. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Academic Publishers.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kantons-und Stadtentwicklung. 2017. “Nachhaltige Ernährung.” http://www.entwicklung.bs.ch/grundlagen/nachhaltigkeit/ernaehrung.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karner, Sandra, Bettina Bock, Femke Hoekstra, Heidrun Moschitz, Anita Thaler, and Johannes S. C. Wiskerke. 2015. “FOODLINKS: Building Communities of Practice for Learning on Sustainable Food Consumption and Production.” In Knowledge Brokerage for Sustainable Development, ed. André Martinuzzi and Michal Sedlacko, 171188. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landert, Jan, Christian Schader, Heidrun Moschitz, and Matthias Stolze. 2017. “A Holistic Sustainability Assessment Method for Urban Food Systems”. Sustainability 9 (4): 490.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, David, and Ian Knowd. 2010. “The Emergence of Urban Agriculture: Sydney, Australia”. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 8 (1–2): 6271. doi:10.3763/ijas.2009.0474.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moragues, Ana, Kevin Morgan, Heidrun Moschitz, Ilze Neimane, Helen Nilsson, Maria Pinto, Harald Rohracher, et al.. 2013. “Urban Food Strategies: The Rough Guide to Sustainable Food Systems”. Document developed in the framework of the FP7 project FOODLINKS (GA No. 265287).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, Kevin. 2009. “Feeding the City: The Challenge of Urban Food Planning”. International Planning Studies 14 (4): 341348. doi:10.1080/13563471003642852.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, Kevin, and Roberta Sonnino. 2010. “The Urban Foodscape: World Cities and the New Food Equation”. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 3 (2): 209224. doi:10.1093/cjres/rsq007.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moschitz, H. (2017). Where is urban food policy in Switzerland? A frame analysis. International Planning Studies, 115. doi:10.1080/13563475.2017.1389644.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moschitz, Heidrun, and Christoph Kueffer. 2016. “Urban Agriculture: Passing Fad or New Prospects for Agriculture and Cities?GAIA—Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society 25 (2): 128130. doi:10.14512/gaia.25.2.14.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moschitz, Heidrun, Dirk Roep, Gianluca Brunori, and Talis Tisenkopfs. 2015. “Learning and Innovation Networks for Sustainable Agriculture: Processes of Co-evolution, Joint Reflection and Facilitation”. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 21 (1): 111. doi:10.1080/1389224x.2014.991111.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schleiniger, Reto. 2014. “Health Care Cost in Switzerland: Quantity- or Price-Driven?Health Policy 117 (1): 8389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2014.04.004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schweizer Obstverband. 2015. Jahresbericht (Annual Report) 2014. Zug.

  • Simon-Rojo, Marian, Xavier Recasens, Sonja Callau, Barbora Duzi, Sebastian Eiter, Verónica Hernández-Jiménez, Patricia Kettle, et al.. 2016. “From Urban Food Gardening to Urban Farming.” In Urban Agriculture Europe, ed. Frank Lohrberg, Lilli Licka, Lionella Scazzosi, and Axel Timpe, 2228. Berlin: Jovis.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sonnino, Roberta. 2009. “Feeding the City: Towards a New Research and Planning Agenda”. International Planning Studies 14 (4): 425435. doi:10.1080/13563471003642795.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Star, Susan Leigh, and James R. Griesemer. 1989. “Institutional Ecology, ‘Translations’ and Boundary Objects: Amateurs and Professionals in Berkeley’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 1907–39”. Social Studies of Science 19 (3): 387420. doi:10.1177/030631289019003001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Statista. 2017. “Umsatzverteilung im Lebensmittelhandel in der Schweiz nach Vertriebskanälen von 2011 bis 2015.” https://de.statista.com.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tisenkopfs, Talis, Ilona Kunda, Sandra Šuˉmane, Gianluca Brunori, Laurens Klerkx, and Heidrun Moschitz. 2015. “Learning and Innovation in Agriculture and Rural Development: The Use of the Concepts of Boundary Work and Boundary Objects”. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 21 (1): 1333. doi:10.1080/1389224x.2014.991115.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verband Schweizer Gemüseproduzenten. 2014. “Fakten zum Schweizer Gemüsebau: Übersicht zum Schweizer Gemüsemarkt im Jahr 2014.” Leaflet, Bern, Switzerland.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiskerke, Johannes S. C. 2009. “On Places Lost and Places Regained: Reflections on the Alternative Food Geography and Sustainable Regional Development”. International Planning Studies 14 (4): 369387. doi:10.1080/13563471003642803.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiskerke, Johannes S. C., and André Viljoen. 2012. “Sustainable Urban Food Provisioning: Challenges for Scientists, Policymakers, Planners and Designers.” In Sustainable Food Planning: Evolving Theory and Practice, ed. André Viljoen and Johannes S. C. Wiskerke, 1935. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zaugg, Aurélie. 2016. “Essen und Ernährung in der Stadt: Wahrnehmung und Einstellungen von Konsument/innen und Produzent/innen zum ‘Ernährungssystem’ Basel.” Master’s thesis, CDE—Centre for Development and Environment, Bern.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

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